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Flashcards in MMR Deck (12):
1

Aetiology of measles

Paramyxovirus

2

Transmisison of measles

Resp droplets

3

Why is the measles vaccine important?

Highly infectious - need ~98% herd immunity

4

Clinical features of measles

• Prodrome 3-4 days = high fever + 3 C's of measles:
• Cough
• Coryza
• Conjunctivitis
• + Koplik spots are pathognomonic of measles (look in mouth) 

• Cephalocaudal, maculopapular rash 2-3 days after initial Sx, red and blotchy
• Clinical improvement 48 hours after rash 
• Occasionally diarrhoea

5

Mx for measles

• Supportive 
• Antibiotics if bacterial superinfection 
• Vitamin A 
• Ig available

6

List some complications of measles

• Otitis media, sinusitis, mastoiditis 
• Pneumonia 
• TB reactivation 
• Myocarditis 
• Encephalitis - SSPE (subacute sclerosing panecephalitis)
• ADEM (acute disseminating encephalomyelitis) 

7

Mumps: classic sign

- Swelling due to parotids - most commonly bilateral
• Tender, febrile

8

Complications of mumps

Many, inc infertility, encephalitis, meningitis, pancreatitis, myocarditis, miscarriage

9

What is rubella

- =German measles = third disease
- self-limiting infection

10

Organism causing rubella

Togavirus

11

Clinical features of rubella

• Classically erythematous, fine maculopapular, discrete rash but can become confluent 
• Spreads from face to body to limbs 
• May have no rash/symptoms
• Prodrome: fever, sore throat, red eyes, H/A, malaise, lymphadenopathy (post-auricular) 

12

Complications of rubella

• Main complications in pregnancy:
• Congenital rubella syndrome 
• Highest risk in 1st trimester 
• Sensorineural hearing loss, IUGR, cataracts and retinopathy, CHD, microcephaly, neurodevelopmental delay, thrombocytopaenia, hep/splenomegaly