Flashcards in Muscular Deck (128):
The fleshy bulk of the muscle is called?
On either end of the muscle, where it attaches to bone, the muscle fibers generally form strong fibrous cords called?
The attachment to the stationary bone is?
The muscular attachment to the moving bone is
The most important characteristic of muscle is its ability to contract, also known as?
What does contractility mean?
It means the muscle is able to shorten and thicken
In order for lost skeletal movement to occur we need?
Two articulating bones
A muscle positioned between the two bones, being attached above and below the joint, with the location of its bulk affecting the movement that occurs
Muscles act in relationship to one another--- one muscle contracts to cause the action is called?
Agonist or prime mover
Muscles act in relationship to one another---the other muscle relaxes to enable the movement to occur is called?
Some other muscles are involved, acting as assistants in various ways, is called?
The characteristics of muscles are?
The ability to become shorter and thicker
The ability to return to the original shape
The ability to become thinner and longer than its resting state
The ability to respond to stimuli
What are the three Types of muscle
Voluntary- skeletal muscle
Skeletal muscle attaches to?
What is another name for skeletal muscle?
In the skeletal muscle the cell membrane is called the?
In addition to the cell membrane, each muscle fiber is also surrounded by a connective tissue layer called the?
In skeletal muscle cells, A number of muscle fibers form a bundle also known as?
A number of muscle fibres form a bundle, or fascicle, which is surrounded by another connective tissue layer called?
Bundles of fascicles form the whole muscle, which is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called?
Where is smooth muscle found in?
In the walls of blood and lymph vessels, in the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, the urinary bladder and the uterus
What is smooth muscle also known as?
In smooth muscle, fibres are arranged in bundles, which are surrounded by _______________ connective tissue to form sheets
Areolar connective tissue
This muscle is only found in the wall of the heart
The study of muscle is called?
All muscle is composed of the same components :
5% mineral salt
All or none law
Each cell either contracts fully, or not at all
The energy that muscles require to contract is provided by the breakdown of carbohydrate and fat muscles inside the fibers. During the break down process, each molecule undergoes a series of changes and with each change, small quantities of energy are released. What is this called?
In order for aerobic respiration process to be completed, oxygen is required. If there is adequate oxygen in the process is complete, water and carbon dioxide result as a by products. If there is adequate oxygen, as happens in prolonged exercise, there is an alternative mechanism called? This process results in the accumulation of intermediate metabolic products such as lactic acid
When muscles are in a state of partial contraction, ready to respond by contracting.
Excess muscle tone is called?
Poor muscle tone is?
Muscles respond to various stimuli:
Nerves carrying internal electrical stimuli
External electrical current
Temperature--both hot and cold
Nerves conduct tiny electric current is produced in the body, and transfer them to the point in the muscle with a nerve in the muscle meet. What is this meeting Called?
The electrical impulses carried to the muscle and causes it to contract. It is most effective if placed over a specific point of the muscle, called the?
Called the motor point
Cold causes contraction of tiny muscles attached to heirs in the skin, trapping in heat.
Erector pili muscles
The muscle tone can be increased without changing muscle length
Muscle length can be changed without changing the muscle tone
Some muscles of facial expression involve circular muscles--these function to widen or tighten an opening
Involves the scalp
Involves the eye area
Involves the nose
Involves the ears
Involves the cheek
Involves the mouth
Involves the chin
Muscle that allows you to raise eyebrows
Muscles that close eyelids and can "screw up" the eyes
The his muscle draws the eyebrows down and inward, forming vertical wrinkles above the nose when frowning
This muscle allows "flaring" of the nostrils
This muscle covers the bridge of the nose
This muscle allows volume if be cheek muscle as in blowing a trumpet or squirting water
This muscle action is to close the lips, and shapes them for whistling
The smiling muscle
Muscle causes the lip to curl upwards
Locator labii superioris
Muscle pulls the corners of the mouth up and out
Levator anguil oris
Muscle allows the lip to curl downwards
Depressor labii inferioris
Muscles that pull the corners of the mouth down and out
Depressor anguli oris
This allows for puckering the chin
Lied superficially over the chin, neck and chest. Wrinkling the. Elk and below the jawline.
It's action is to close the mouth and often unconsciously contracted when stressed
Draws the mandible up to the maxillae when chewing
Lifts the mandible, closes the jaw and moves the mandible from side to side
Opens the jaw, protrudes the mandible and moves the mandible from side to side
How many main muscles are involved for mastication?
When both muscles contract together, they flex the neck (move chin to chest). When one contracts alone, it draws the head towards the shoulder on that side
This muscle is to pull the head backwards and it also controls the movement of the scapula when the shoulder joint is in use
The main extensors of the vertebral colum
Flexes the hip
When contracted, it causes lateral flexion of the lumbar region of the vertebral column
Internal rotation and extension of the arm
Internally rotates the shoulder
Name the four pairs of skeletal muscle that make up the anterior abdominal wall
The abdominal wall is divided longitudinally into two equal halves by tendinous cord running down the midline
The most superficial of the abdominal muscles, located just beneath the skin and subcutaneous fat
This is the deepest abdominal muscle, furthest from the skin
This muscle lies deep to the external oblique, but superficial to the transversus
Internal oblique muscles
Obliquus internus abdominus
This is the most superficial transverse abdominal muscle layer
External oblique muscles
Obliquus externus abdominus
Name the three groups of respiratory muscles
The internal intercostal muscles (11 pairs)
The external intercostal muscle (11 pairs)
Their action is to make the chest cavity smaller, forcing air out of the lungs
Internal intercostal muscles
They raise the ribs upward and downward thus increasing the size of the thoracic cavity, drawing air into the lungs
The external intercostal muscles
This muscle is the main muscle of respiration and is responsible for 75% of respiration
The major movements of the scapula are?
The main muscles involved in shoulder girdle movements
This muscle pulls the scapula forward around the chest (protraction)
This muscle aids serratus anterior in protraction of the scapula
Actions include retraction, elevation, depression and upward rotation of the scapula
These elevate the scapula and aid in retraction
Rhomboid major and minor
Movements of the humerus at the shoulder joint
Muscles that move the shoulder joint and upper arm
Scapulae muscles - supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis.
It addicted the arm and rotates it internally. The part attached to the clavicle aids in flexing the shoulder joint
It acts to flex the arm, to abduct the arm and to extend the arm. It can also rotate the arm internally and externally to a lesser extent.
It extends the humerus, and internally rotates and adducts it
It is an internal rotator
Rotator cuff muscles. It is involved in external rotation
Three important scapular muscles
It's main action is flexion of the elbow but it also gives stability to the shoulder joint and helps to supinate the hand
It acts the flex the elbow
It's action is to extend the elbow
Its action is to rotate the radio ulna joint, changing the hand from supine (palm up) to prone (palm down). This movement is called pronation
Its action is to rotate the radio ulna joint changing hand from palm down to palm up. Movement is called supination
Names the flexors of the forearm
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Flexor carpi radialis
Extensors of the forearm
Extensor carpi unlaris
Extensor carpi radialis
These two muscles act together to cause abduction of the wrist
The two radial muscles -- flexor and extensor carpi radialis
The two muscles act together to cause addiction of the wrist
The two ulnar muscles --flexor and extensor carpi ulnaris
The most superficial and largest of the three gluteal muscles. It is also a lateral rotator, and helps to maintain posture
This is the intermediate layer of the three gluteal muscles. It abducts the hip joint and is also involved in medial rotation.
This forms the deepest layer and is the smallest gluteal muscle.
This muscle lies anterior to gluteus medius in a postero-lateral position on the thigh. It is an abductor and medial rotator of the hip
Tensor fascia latae
A thickening of the deep fascia of the thigh, which runs from ilium to tibia and helps to stabilize the knee
The three main muscles of the hamstrings
This causes flexion at the hip joint
What muscles form the quads
This is the tailor's muscle, because it enables one to sit cross-legged. It is the longest individual muscle in the body
Muscles of the medial thigh
The adductor group
Flexors of the knee include:
Sartorius (anterior thigh)
Gracilis (medial thigh)
Hamstrings (posterior thigh)
Gastrocnemius (posterior calf)
Extensors of the knee
Tensor fascia latae (posterior thigh) which also stabilizes the knee
Quadriceps femoris (anterior thigh)
This muscle lies anterior to the tibia and its action is dorsiflexion
This is a thin muscle and its action is to dorsiflex the toes
Extensor digitorium longus
These are a group of muscles, that are principally evertors of the foot.
This muscle lies on the posterior part of the leg and its action is plantar flexion of the ankle and inversion of the foot
This is the principle calf muscle. It is a superficial muscle , which flexes the knee and plantar flexes the ankle
This is the other main calf muscle. It lies deep to gastrocnemius. It is concerned with maintaining posture