Muscular Flashcards Preview

Anatomy/physiology > Muscular > Flashcards

Flashcards in Muscular Deck (128):
1

The fleshy bulk of the muscle is called?

The belly

2

On either end of the muscle, where it attaches to bone, the muscle fibers generally form strong fibrous cords called?

Tendons

3

The attachment to the stationary bone is?

The origin

4

The muscular attachment to the moving bone is

Insertion

5

The most important characteristic of muscle is its ability to contract, also known as?

Contractility

6

What does contractility mean?

It means the muscle is able to shorten and thicken

7

In order for lost skeletal movement to occur we need?

Two articulating bones
A joint
A muscle positioned between the two bones, being attached above and below the joint, with the location of its bulk affecting the movement that occurs

8

Muscles act in relationship to one another--- one muscle contracts to cause the action is called?

Agonist or prime mover

9

Muscles act in relationship to one another---the other muscle relaxes to enable the movement to occur is called?

Antagonist

10

Some other muscles are involved, acting as assistants in various ways, is called?

Protagonists

11

The characteristics of muscles are?

Contractility
Elasticity
Extensibility
Excitability

12

The ability to become shorter and thicker

Contractility

13

The ability to return to the original shape

Elasticity

14

The ability to become thinner and longer than its resting state

Extensibility

15

The ability to respond to stimuli

Excitability

16

What are the three Types of muscle

Voluntary- skeletal muscle
Involuntary-smooth muscle
Cardiac

17

Skeletal muscle attaches to?

The skeleton

18

What is another name for skeletal muscle?

Striated muscle

19

In the skeletal muscle the cell membrane is called the?

Sarcolemma

20

In addition to the cell membrane, each muscle fiber is also surrounded by a connective tissue layer called the?

Endomycium

21

In skeletal muscle cells, A number of muscle fibers form a bundle also known as?

Fascicle

22

A number of muscle fibres form a bundle, or fascicle, which is surrounded by another connective tissue layer called?

Perimycium

23

Bundles of fascicles form the whole muscle, which is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called?

Epimycium

24

Where is smooth muscle found in?

In the walls of blood and lymph vessels, in the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, the urinary bladder and the uterus

25

What is smooth muscle also known as?

Visceral muscles

26

In smooth muscle, fibres are arranged in bundles, which are surrounded by _______________ connective tissue to form sheets

Areolar connective tissue

27

This muscle is only found in the wall of the heart

Cardiac muscle

28

The study of muscle is called?

Myology

29

All muscle is composed of the same components :

75% protein
20% water
5% mineral salt
Glycogen
Glucose
Fat

30

All or none law

Each cell either contracts fully, or not at all

31

The energy that muscles require to contract is provided by the breakdown of carbohydrate and fat muscles inside the fibers. During the break down process, each molecule undergoes a series of changes and with each change, small quantities of energy are released. What is this called?

Aerobic respiration

32

In order for aerobic respiration process to be completed, oxygen is required. If there is adequate oxygen in the process is complete, water and carbon dioxide result as a by products. If there is adequate oxygen, as happens in prolonged exercise, there is an alternative mechanism called? This process results in the accumulation of intermediate metabolic products such as lactic acid

Anaerobic respiration

33

When muscles are in a state of partial contraction, ready to respond by contracting.

Muscle tone

34

Excess muscle tone is called?

Hypertonic

35

Poor muscle tone is?

Hypotonic

36

Muscles respond to various stimuli:

Nerves carrying internal electrical stimuli
External electrical current
Temperature--both hot and cold
Mechanical stimuli

37

Nerves conduct tiny electric current is produced in the body, and transfer them to the point in the muscle with a nerve in the muscle meet. What is this meeting Called?

Synapse

38

The electrical impulses carried to the muscle and causes it to contract. It is most effective if placed over a specific point of the muscle, called the?

Called the motor point

39

Cold causes contraction of tiny muscles attached to heirs in the skin, trapping in heat.

Erector pili muscles

40

The muscle tone can be increased without changing muscle length

Isometric contraction

41

Muscle length can be changed without changing the muscle tone

Isotonic contraction

42

Some muscles of facial expression involve circular muscles--these function to widen or tighten an opening

Sphincters

43

Involves the scalp

Epicranial

44

Involves the eye area

Orbital

45

Involves the nose

Nasal

46

Involves the ears

Auricular

47

Involves the cheek

Buccal

48

Involves the mouth

Oral

49

Involves the chin

Mental

50

Muscle that allows you to raise eyebrows

Occipito-frontalis

51

Muscles that close eyelids and can "screw up" the eyes

Orbicularis oculi

52

The his muscle draws the eyebrows down and inward, forming vertical wrinkles above the nose when frowning

Corrugator

53

This muscle allows "flaring" of the nostrils

Nasalis

54

This muscle covers the bridge of the nose

Procerus

55

This muscle allows volume if be cheek muscle as in blowing a trumpet or squirting water

Buccinator

56

This muscle action is to close the lips, and shapes them for whistling

Orbicularis oris

57

The smiling muscle

Zygomaticus

58

Grinning muscle

Risorius

59

Muscle causes the lip to curl upwards

Locator labii superioris

60

Muscle pulls the corners of the mouth up and out

Levator anguil oris

61

Muscle allows the lip to curl downwards

Depressor labii inferioris

62

Muscles that pull the corners of the mouth down and out

Depressor anguli oris

63

This allows for puckering the chin

Mentalis

64

Lied superficially over the chin, neck and chest. Wrinkling the. Elk and below the jawline.

Platysma

65

It's action is to close the mouth and often unconsciously contracted when stressed

Temporalis

66

Draws the mandible up to the maxillae when chewing

Masseter

67

Lifts the mandible, closes the jaw and moves the mandible from side to side

Medial pterygoid

68

Opens the jaw, protrudes the mandible and moves the mandible from side to side

Lateral pterygoid

69

How many main muscles are involved for mastication?

4
Temporalis
Masseter
Lateral pterygoid
Medial pterygoid

70

When both muscles contract together, they flex the neck (move chin to chest). When one contracts alone, it draws the head towards the shoulder on that side

Sternocleidomastoid

71

This muscle is to pull the head backwards and it also controls the movement of the scapula when the shoulder joint is in use

Trapezius

72

The main extensors of the vertebral colum

Erector spinae

73

Flexes the hip

Psoas

74

When contracted, it causes lateral flexion of the lumbar region of the vertebral column

Quadratus lumborum

75

Internal rotation and extension of the arm

Latissimus dorsi

76

Internally rotates the shoulder

Teres major

77

Name the four pairs of skeletal muscle that make up the anterior abdominal wall

Rectus abdominus
Transversus abdominus
External obliques
Internal obliques

78

The abdominal wall is divided longitudinally into two equal halves by tendinous cord running down the midline

Linea alba

79

The most superficial of the abdominal muscles, located just beneath the skin and subcutaneous fat

Rectus abdominus

80

This is the deepest abdominal muscle, furthest from the skin

Transversus abdominus

81

This muscle lies deep to the external oblique, but superficial to the transversus

Internal oblique muscles
Obliquus internus abdominus

82

This is the most superficial transverse abdominal muscle layer

External oblique muscles
Obliquus externus abdominus

83

Name the three groups of respiratory muscles

The internal intercostal muscles (11 pairs)
The external intercostal muscle (11 pairs)
The diaphragm

84

Their action is to make the chest cavity smaller, forcing air out of the lungs

Internal intercostal muscles

85

They raise the ribs upward and downward thus increasing the size of the thoracic cavity, drawing air into the lungs

The external intercostal muscles

86

This muscle is the main muscle of respiration and is responsible for 75% of respiration

The diaphragm

87

The major movements of the scapula are?

Retraction
Protraction
Elevation
Depression
Upward rotation

88

The main muscles involved in shoulder girdle movements

Serratus anterior
Pectoralis minor
Trapezius
Rhomboids

89

This muscle pulls the scapula forward around the chest (protraction)

Serratus anterior

90

This muscle aids serratus anterior in protraction of the scapula

Pectoralis minor

91

Actions include retraction, elevation, depression and upward rotation of the scapula

Trapezius

92

These elevate the scapula and aid in retraction

Rhomboid major and minor

93

Movements of the humerus at the shoulder joint

Adduction
Abduction
Extension
Flexion
Internal rotation
External rotation

94

Muscles that move the shoulder joint and upper arm

Pectoralis major
Deltoid
Latissimus dorsi
Teres major
Teres minor
Scapulae muscles - supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis.

95

It addicted the arm and rotates it internally. The part attached to the clavicle aids in flexing the shoulder joint

Pectoralis major

96

It acts to flex the arm, to abduct the arm and to extend the arm. It can also rotate the arm internally and externally to a lesser extent.

Deltoid

97

It extends the humerus, and internally rotates and adducts it

Latissimus dorsi

98

It is an internal rotator

Teres major

99

Rotator cuff muscles. It is involved in external rotation

Teres minor

100

Three important scapular muscles

Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Subscapularis

101

It's main action is flexion of the elbow but it also gives stability to the shoulder joint and helps to supinate the hand

Biceps brachii

102

It acts the flex the elbow

Brachialis

103

It's action is to extend the elbow

Triceps brachii

104

Its action is to rotate the radio ulna joint, changing the hand from supine (palm up) to prone (palm down). This movement is called pronation

Pronator teres

105

Its action is to rotate the radio ulna joint changing hand from palm down to palm up. Movement is called supination

Supinator

106

Names the flexors of the forearm

Flexor carpi ulnaris
Flexor carpi radialis

107

Extensors of the forearm

Extensor carpi unlaris
Extensor carpi radialis

108

These two muscles act together to cause abduction of the wrist

The two radial muscles -- flexor and extensor carpi radialis

109

The two muscles act together to cause addiction of the wrist

The two ulnar muscles --flexor and extensor carpi ulnaris

110

The most superficial and largest of the three gluteal muscles. It is also a lateral rotator, and helps to maintain posture

Gluteus Maximus

111

This is the intermediate layer of the three gluteal muscles. It abducts the hip joint and is also involved in medial rotation.

Gluteus medius

112

This forms the deepest layer and is the smallest gluteal muscle.

Gluteus minimus

113

This muscle lies anterior to gluteus medius in a postero-lateral position on the thigh. It is an abductor and medial rotator of the hip

Tensor fascia latae

114

A thickening of the deep fascia of the thigh, which runs from ilium to tibia and helps to stabilize the knee

Ilio-tibial tract

115

The three main muscles of the hamstrings

Semitendinosus
Semimembranosus
Biceps femoris

116

This causes flexion at the hip joint

Iliacus

117

What muscles form the quads

Rectus femoris
Vastus medialis
Vastus lateralis
Vastus intermedius

118

This is the tailor's muscle, because it enables one to sit cross-legged. It is the longest individual muscle in the body

Sartorius

119

Muscles of the medial thigh

Pectineus
Gracilis
The adductor group
-adductor longus
-adductor magnus
-adductor brevis

120

Flexors of the knee include:

Sartorius (anterior thigh)
Gracilis (medial thigh)
Hamstrings (posterior thigh)
-semimembranosus
-semitendinosus
-biceps femoris
Gastrocnemius (posterior calf)

121

Extensors of the knee

Tensor fascia latae (posterior thigh) which also stabilizes the knee
Quadriceps femoris (anterior thigh)

122

This muscle lies anterior to the tibia and its action is dorsiflexion

Tibialis anterior

123

This is a thin muscle and its action is to dorsiflex the toes

Extensor digitorium longus

124

These are a group of muscles, that are principally evertors of the foot.

Peroneus

125

This muscle lies on the posterior part of the leg and its action is plantar flexion of the ankle and inversion of the foot

Tibialis posterior

126

This is the principle calf muscle. It is a superficial muscle , which flexes the knee and plantar flexes the ankle

Gastrocnemius

127

This is the other main calf muscle. It lies deep to gastrocnemius. It is concerned with maintaining posture

Soleus

128

This is a deep muscle arising from the posterior surface of the tibia. Causes plantar flexion of the ankle and the toes

Flexor digitorium longus