Neoplasia II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neoplasia II Deck (28):
1

what do carcinogenic agents cause?

genetic damage and neoplastic transformation

2

three types of carcinogenic agents

chemical, radiation, oncogenic viruses/microbes

3

mechanisms of chemical carcinogens

indirect (require metabolic conversion) or direct

4

example of indirect chemical carcinogen

P450 polymorphisms

5

Chemical carcinogen targets

DNA, RNA, protein

6

steps of chemical damage

initiation and promotion (must occur in order for neoplasm)

7

initiation

rapid, irreversible mutation in genome- potential for tumor conversion (i.e smoking)

8

promotion

promotor chemicals cause short lived/reversible induction of proliferation

9

radiation damage types

UV (dimers) or ionizing (direct and indirect)

10

melanoma vs non melanoma skin cancer mechanisms

intense intermittent exposure vs cumulative exposure

11

Viral/microbial chemicals

DNA, RNA, microbe

12

oncogenic DNA viruses

HPV, epstein barr, Hep B

13

Oncogenic RNA viruses

Human T cell lymphotropic viruses (Japan/Caribbean

14

oncogenic mibrobe

h pylori- affects B cells, lots of inflammation

15

hormonal effects of tumors

cachexia and paraneoplastic syndromes

16

cachexia

loss of body fat, TNFa cytokine from tumor/macrophage

17

paraneoplastic syndrome

remote effects from bioactive compound synthesis- identical or just similar. Substance produce is in wrong tissue. 10-15% all cancer patients, earliest manifestation of hidden. can be fatal!

18

ecdocrinopathies with ectopic hormones

cushings (small cell carcinoma, ACTH excess cortisol), hypercalcemia (squamous cell carcinoma, TGFa, TNF, IL)

19

vascular and hematologic changes

non bacterial thrombotic ends. hypercoagulation

20

grading tumors

cellular characteristics- mitosis, differentiation/architecture

21

staging tumors

TNM- clinical value, extent of spread

22

Diagnoses

histologic, molecular, tumor markers

23

tumor markers gage

NON DIAGNOSTIC tumor response to treatment

24

histologic.cytological

examine tissue for malignancy- i.e tag for Her2Neu or p53

25

most common proto oncogene mutation

RAS, gain of function

26

BCL2

regulates APOPTOSIS (also p53)

27

High risk HPV

16/18

28

how does TNF alpha lead to cachexia

promote protein/ lipid metabolism, suppress appetite