Neuroanatomy and Neurochemistry of Cognition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neuroanatomy and Neurochemistry of Cognition Deck (40):
1

What is cognition?

The mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience and the senses

2

What are the functions of the frontal lobe?

Voluntary movement
Reasoning
Executive function
Personality
Inhibition
Initiative
Expressive language

3

What are the functions of the parietal lobe?

Knowing left from right
Reading/Writing
Body orientation
Calculation
Two point discrimination
Graphaethesia

4

What is Dyslexia?

A general term for disorders that can involve difficulty in learning to read or interpret words, letters and other symbols

5

What is Apraxia?

Inability to perform complex movements in the presence of normal motor, sensory and cerebellar function

6

What is Agnosia? (Tactile agnosia)

Inability to recognise or discriminate

7

What is Gerstmann syndrome?

Characterised by acalculia, agraphia, finger anomia and difficulty in differentiation of left and right

8

What are the functions of the Temporal lobe?

Understanding speech
Memory
Hearing
Emotions
Sense of identity
Recognising faces

9

What is the function of the Occipital lobe?

Primary visual reception area

10

What is Broca's area?

a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere (usually the left) of the hominid brain with functions linked to speech production.

11

What is Wernicke's area?

is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex.
It is involved in the comprehension and understanding of written and spoken language

12

What role does the Limbic System have a part in?

Emotional experience and Visceral regulation

13

What is the main function of the Hippocampus?

Memory
forming new memories
Spatial memory
Navigation

14

What is the primary structure of the limbic system comprised of?

Hypothalamus
Amygdala
Hippocampus and Dentate Gyrus
Cingulate gyrus

15

What is the Hypothalamus?

Main integrator of the autonomic and the endocrine system

16

What is the Circuit of Papez?

Includes;
Hippocampus, fornix, mamillary bodies, anterior thalamic nuclei, cingulate gyrus and the enterohinal cortex

17

What happens regarding the right side of the Amygdala?

Negative emotions

18

What happens regarding the left side of the Amygdala?

Pleasant and unpleasant emotions
Reward system

19

What are the stages of memory?

Encoding
Storage
Retrieval

20

What is Acetylcholine?

An ester of acetic acid and choline

21

What does Acetylcholine do?

Acts as a modulator
alters way other brain structures process info, rather than a chemical transferring info from point to point

22

What are the 2 main classes of acetylcholine receptor?

Nictonic
Muscarinic

23

What is glutamate?

Most abundant neurotransmitter
Main transmitter in the neocortex and pyramidal neurones

24

What are the 3 main categories of chemical receptor for glutamate?

NMDA
AMPA
Metabotropic

25

Is glutamate an excitatory or an inhibitory neurotransmitter?

Excitatory

26

What needs to be present for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease?

Insidious onset with slow deterioration
Presence of dementia
Absence of clinical evidence
Absence of a sudden apoplectic onset or of neuro signs of focal damage

27

Describe Vascular dementia

Impairment of cognitive function is commonly uneven
Memory loss
Intellectual impairment
Focal neurological signs

28

How do you diagnose vascular dementia?

Computerised axial tomography
Neuropathological examination

29

What are associated features of vascular dementia?

Hypertension
Carotid bruit
Emotional lability
Transient depressive mood

30

What is Lewy Body Dementia?

Progressive dementia with deficits in attention and executive function

31

What core features are present with Lewy body dementia?

Fluctuating cognition with variations in attention and alertness
Recurrent complex visual hallucinations
Spontaneous features of parkinsons

32

What is a suggestive feature of impending dementia or parkinsons?

REM sleep beahviour disorder (RBD) years earlier

33

What does a PROBABLE LBD diagnosis require?

Dementia plus two or more core features
OR
Dementia plus one core feature and one or more suggestive features

34

What does a POSSIBLE LBD diagnosis require?

Dementia plus one core feature
Dementia plus one or more suggestive feature

35

What are supportive features of dementia? (LBD)

Repeated falls and syncope
Transient, unexplained loss of consciousness
Autonomic dysfunction
Hallucinations i.e. touch, hearing
Visuospatial abnormalities
Other psychiatric disturbances

36

What actually is Lewy Body Dementia?

Neuropathology
Alpha-synuclein proteins within the cytoplasm of neurons (Lewy bodies)
Loss of dopamine in the substantia nigra
Loss of acetylcholine producing neurons

37

What are the 3 types of Fronto-temporal dementia?

Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia
Semantic dementia
Progressive non fluent aphasia

38

What is the neuropathology of fronto-temporal dementia?

Pick bodies - tau +ve spherical cytoplasmic neuronal inclusions, composed of straight filaments
Pick bodies - Ballooned neurons with dissolution of chromatin)

39

What is the criteria for alcohol related dementia?

Memory impairment +1 of:
Apraxia
Aphasia
Agnosia
Disturbance in executive function
Functional impairment

40

What are 3 things caused by low thiamine levels?

Ophthalmoplegia
Confusion
Ataxia