Flashcards in Neuroanatomy and Neurochemistry of Cognition Deck (40):
What is cognition?
The mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience and the senses
What are the functions of the frontal lobe?
What are the functions of the parietal lobe?
Knowing left from right
Two point discrimination
What is Dyslexia?
A general term for disorders that can involve difficulty in learning to read or interpret words, letters and other symbols
What is Apraxia?
Inability to perform complex movements in the presence of normal motor, sensory and cerebellar function
What is Agnosia? (Tactile agnosia)
Inability to recognise or discriminate
What is Gerstmann syndrome?
Characterised by acalculia, agraphia, finger anomia and difficulty in differentiation of left and right
What are the functions of the Temporal lobe?
Sense of identity
What is the function of the Occipital lobe?
Primary visual reception area
What is Broca's area?
a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere (usually the left) of the hominid brain with functions linked to speech production.
What is Wernicke's area?
is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex.
It is involved in the comprehension and understanding of written and spoken language
What role does the Limbic System have a part in?
Emotional experience and Visceral regulation
What is the main function of the Hippocampus?
forming new memories
What is the primary structure of the limbic system comprised of?
Hippocampus and Dentate Gyrus
What is the Hypothalamus?
Main integrator of the autonomic and the endocrine system
What is the Circuit of Papez?
Hippocampus, fornix, mamillary bodies, anterior thalamic nuclei, cingulate gyrus and the enterohinal cortex
What happens regarding the right side of the Amygdala?
What happens regarding the left side of the Amygdala?
Pleasant and unpleasant emotions
What are the stages of memory?
What is Acetylcholine?
An ester of acetic acid and choline
What does Acetylcholine do?
Acts as a modulator
alters way other brain structures process info, rather than a chemical transferring info from point to point
What are the 2 main classes of acetylcholine receptor?
What is glutamate?
Most abundant neurotransmitter
Main transmitter in the neocortex and pyramidal neurones
What are the 3 main categories of chemical receptor for glutamate?
Is glutamate an excitatory or an inhibitory neurotransmitter?
What needs to be present for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease?
Insidious onset with slow deterioration
Presence of dementia
Absence of clinical evidence
Absence of a sudden apoplectic onset or of neuro signs of focal damage
Describe Vascular dementia
Impairment of cognitive function is commonly uneven
Focal neurological signs
How do you diagnose vascular dementia?
Computerised axial tomography
What are associated features of vascular dementia?
Transient depressive mood
What is Lewy Body Dementia?
Progressive dementia with deficits in attention and executive function
What core features are present with Lewy body dementia?
Fluctuating cognition with variations in attention and alertness
Recurrent complex visual hallucinations
Spontaneous features of parkinsons
What is a suggestive feature of impending dementia or parkinsons?
REM sleep beahviour disorder (RBD) years earlier
What does a PROBABLE LBD diagnosis require?
Dementia plus two or more core features
Dementia plus one core feature and one or more suggestive features
What does a POSSIBLE LBD diagnosis require?
Dementia plus one core feature
Dementia plus one or more suggestive feature
What are supportive features of dementia? (LBD)
Repeated falls and syncope
Transient, unexplained loss of consciousness
Hallucinations i.e. touch, hearing
Other psychiatric disturbances
What actually is Lewy Body Dementia?
Alpha-synuclein proteins within the cytoplasm of neurons (Lewy bodies)
Loss of dopamine in the substantia nigra
Loss of acetylcholine producing neurons
What are the 3 types of Fronto-temporal dementia?
Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia
Progressive non fluent aphasia
What is the neuropathology of fronto-temporal dementia?
Pick bodies - tau +ve spherical cytoplasmic neuronal inclusions, composed of straight filaments
Pick bodies - Ballooned neurons with dissolution of chromatin)
What is the criteria for alcohol related dementia?
Memory impairment +1 of:
Disturbance in executive function