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Flashcards in Organic Chemistry Deck (18):
0

Naming
Prefixes

1 meth
2 eth
3 prop
4 but
5 pent
6 hex
7 sept
8 oct

1

Functional grouo

Is an atom or a group of atoms responsible for the typical chemical reaction of a molecule

2

Homologous series

Is a family of organic compounds with the same functional group but differ by CH2.
Same general formula
Trend in physical properties
Similar chemical oroperties

3

Isomers

Same molecular formula but different atom arrangement

4

Positional isomerism

The functional group is attached to the main chain at different points

5

Functional group isomerism

Different functional group

6

Chain isomerism

The hydrocarbon chain is arranged differently (branched)

7

Alkanes

Saturated hydrocarbons with only carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen single bonds.
CnH2n+2

8

Polarity of alkanes

Almost non-polar > only van der Waals
The larger the molecule the stringer the van der Waals

9

Boiling points of alkanes

The longer the chain the stronger the van der Waals the higher the boiling points

10

Solubility if alkanes

Insoluble in water because water is held by hydrogen bond (much stronger)
Soluble in non-polar liqiuds

11

Fractional distillation

To separate the mixture of crude oil by heating and collecting the fractions that boil over different ranges if temperature

12

Fractionating tower

Bubble caps- condense here
Shorter chain collected near the top

13

Purpose of cracking

To produce shorter, more useful chains
To produce alkenes

14

Thermal cracking

High cost
High temp 700-1200K
High pressure 7000kPa
Produce alkane + alkene

15

Catalytic cracking

Low cost
Low temp 720K
Low pressure 1atm
Zeolite catalyst
Produce (mostly branched) alkanes + alkenes

16

Complete combustion of alkanes

Alkane + oxygen --> co2 + h2o

17

Incomplete combustion of alkanes

Alkane + oxygen --> co + h20
Carbon monoxide - toxic