Pharm Associations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharm Associations Deck (164):
1

Absence seizures

Ethosuximide

2

Acute gout attack

  • NSAIDs
  • colchicine
  • glucocorticoids

3

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (M3)

All-trans retinoic acid

4

ADHD

  • Methylphenidate
  • CBT
  • atomoxetine
  • guanfacine
  • clonidine

5

Alcoholism

  • Disulfiram
  • acamprosate
  • naltrexone
  • supportive care

6

Alcohol withdrawal

Long-acting benzodiazepines

7

Anorexia

  • Nutrition
  • psychotherapy
  • mirtazapine

8

Arrhythmia in damaged cardiac tissue

Class IB antiarrhythmic (lidocaine, mexiletine)

9

Benign prostatic hyperplasia

  • α1-antagonists
  • 5α-reductase inhibitors
  • PDE-5 inhibitors

10

Bipolar disorder

  • Mood stabilizers (eg, lithium, valproic acid, carbamazepine)
  • atypical antipsychotics

11

Breast cancer in postmenopausal woman

Aromatase inhibitor (anastrozole)

12

Buerger disease

Smoking cessation

13

Bulimia nervosa

SSRIs

14

Candida albicans

  • Topical azoles (vaginitis)
  • Nystatin, fluconazole, caspofungin (oral/esophageal)
  • Fluconazole, caspofungin, amphotericin B (systemic)

15

Carcinoid syndrome

Octreotide

16

Chlamydia trachomatis

Doxycycline

  • + ceftriaxone for gonorrhea coinfection)
  • + erythromycin eye drops (prophylaxis in infants)

17

Chronic gout

  • Xanthine oxidase inhibitors (eg, allopurinol, febuxostat)
  • Pegloticase
  • Probenecid

18

Chronic hepatitis B or C

  • IFN-α (HBV and HCV)
  • ribavirin, simeprevir, sofosbuvir (HCV)

19

Chronic myelogenous leukemia

Imatinib

20

Clostridium botulinum

Antitoxin

21

Clostridium difficile

  • Oral metronidazole
  • if refractory, oral vancomycin

22

Clostridium tetani

Antitoxin

23

CMV

  • Ganciclovir
  • foscarnet
  • cidofovir

24

Crohn disease

  • Corticosteroids
  • infliximab
  • azathioprine

25

Cryptococcus neoformans

Fluconazole (in AIDS patients)

26

Cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis

Mesna

27

Depression

SSRIs (first-line)

28

Diabetes insipidus

  • Desmopressin (central)
  • hydrochlorothiazide, indomethacin, amiloride (nephrogenic)

29

Diabetes mellitus type 1

Dietary intervention (low carbohydrate) + insulin replacement

30

Diabetes mellitus type 2

Dietary intervention, oral hypoglycemics, and insulin (if refractory)

31

Diabetic ketoacidosis

Fluids, insulin, K+

32

Drug of choice for anticoagulation during pregnancy

Heparin

33

Enterococci

Vancomycin, aminopenicillins/cephalosporins

34

Erectile dysfunction

Sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil

35

ER ⊕ breast cancer

Tamoxifen

36

Ethylene glycol/methanol intoxication

Fomepizole (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor)

37

Haemophilus influenzae (B)

Rifampin (prophylaxis)

38

Generalized anxiety disorder

  • SSRIs, SNRIs (first line)
  • buspirone (second line)

39

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener)

  • Cyclophosphamide
  • corticosteroids

40

Heparin reversal

Protamine sulfate

41

HER2/neu ⊕ breast cancer

Trastuzumab

42

HypERaldosteronism

Spironolactone

43

HypERcholesterolemia

Statin (first-line)

44

HypERtriglyceridemia

Fibrate

45

Immediate anticoagulation

Heparin

46

Infertility

  • Leuprolide
  • GnRH (pulsatile)
  • clomiphene

47

Influenza

  • Oseltamivir
  • zanamivir

48

Kawasaki disease

  • IVIG
  • high-dose aspirin

49

Legionella pneumophila

Macrolides (eg, azithromycin)

50

Long-term anticoagulation

  • Warfarin
  • dabigatran
  • rivaroxaban
  • apixaban

51

Malaria

  • Chloroquine
  • mefloquine
  • atovaquone/proguanil (for blood schizont)
  • primaquine (for liver hypnozooite)

52

Malignant hyperthermia

Dantrolene

53

Medical abortion

Mifepristone

54

Migraine

  • Abortive therapies: sumatriptan, NSAIDs
  • Prophylaxis: propranolol, topiramate, CCBs, amitriptyline

55

Multiple sclerosis

  • Disease-modifying therapies (β-interferon, natalizumab)
  • for acute flares, use IV steroids

56

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

RIPE: rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol

57

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Ceftriaxone (add doxycycline to cover likely concurrent C trachomatis)

58

Neisseria meningitidis

  • Penicillin/ceftriaxone
  • Rifampin (prophylaxis)

59

Neural tube defect prevention

Prenatal folic acid

60

Osteomalacia/rickets

Vitamin D supplementation

61

Osteoporosis

  • Calcium/vitamin D supplementation (prophylaxis)
  • bisphosphonates, PTH analogs, SERMs, calcitonin,
  • denosumab (treatment)

62

Patent ductus arteriosus

  • Close with indomethacin
  • Keep open with PGE analogs

63

Pheochromocytoma

α-ANTagonists (phenoxybenzamine)

64

Pneumocystis jirovecii

TMP-SMX (prophylaxis and treatment in immunosuppressed patients)

65

Prolactinoma

Cabergoline/bromocriptine (dopamine agonists)

66

Prostate adenocarcinoma/uterine fibroids

Leuprolide, GnRH (continuous)

67

Prostate adenocarcinoma

Flutamide

68

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  • Antipseudomonal penicillins
  • aminoglycosides
  • carbapenems

69

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (idiopathic)

  • Sildenafil
  • bosentan
  • epoprostenol

70

Rickettsia rickettsii

  • Doxycycline
  • chloramphenicol

71

Schizophrenia (negative symptoms)

Atypical antipsychotics

72

Schizophrenia (positive symptoms)

Typical and atypical antipsychotics

73

SIADH

  • Fluid restriction
  • IV hypertonic saline
  • conivaptan/tolvaptan
  • demeclocycline

74

Sickle cell disease

Hydroxyurea (increases HbF)

75

Sporothrix schenckii

  • Itraconazole
  • oral potassium iodide

76

Stable angina

Sublingual nitroglycerin

77

Staphylococcus aureus

  • MSSA: nafcillin, oxacillin, dicloxacillin (antistaphylococcal penicillins)
  • MRSA: vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, ceftaroline

78

Streptococcus bovis

  • Penicillin prophylaxis
  • evaluation for colon cancer if linked to endocarditis

79

Streptococcus pneumoniae

  • Penicillin/cephalosporin (systemic infection, pneumonia)
  • vancomycin (meningitis)

80

Streptococcus pyogenes

Penicillin prophylaxis

81

Temporal arteritis

High-dose steroids

82

Tonic-clonic seizures

  • Levetiracetam
  • phenytoin
  • valproate
  • carbamazepine

83

Toxoplasma gondii

Sulfadiazine + pyrimethamine

84

Treponema pallidum

Penicillin

85

Trichomonas vaginalis

Metronidazole (patient and partner)

86

Trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux)

Carbamazepine

87

Ulcerative colitis

  • 5-ASA preparations (eg, mesalamine)
  • 6-mercaptopurine
  • infliximab
  • colectomy

88

UTI prophylaxis

TMP-SMX

89

Warfarin reversal

  • Fresh frozen plasma (acute)
  • vitamin K (non-acute)

90

UTIs

Nitrofurantoin

91

Rx Acetaminophen toxicity

N-acetylcysteine → replenishes glutathione

92

Rx AChE inhibitor toxicity / organophosphates

  1. Atropine (central + peripheral)
  2. Pralidoxime (peripheral only)

93

Rx Amphetamine toxicity

NH4Cl (acidify urine)

94

Rx Antimuscarinic / Anticholinergic toxicity

  • Physostigmine (Central AchE Inhibitor)
  • control hypERthermia

95

Rx Arsenic toxicity

  • Dimercaprol
  • Cuccimer

96

Rx Benzodiazepine toxcicity

Flumazenil

97

Rx β-blocker toxicity

  • Saline
  • Atropine
  • Glucagon

98

Rx Carbon monoxide toxicity

  • 100% O2
  • Hyperbaric O2

99

Rx Copper toxicity

  • Penicillamine
  • Trientine

100

Rx Cyanide toxicity

  • Nitrite + Thiosulfate
  • Hydroxocobalamin

101

Rx Digitalis (digoxin) toxicity

Anti-Digi Fab fragments

102

Rx Gold toxicity

  • Penicillamine
  • Dimercaprol (BAL)
  • Succimer

103

Rx Iron toxicity

  • Deferoxamine
  • Deferasirox
  • Deferiprone

104

Rx Lead toxicity

  • EDTA
  • Dimercaprol
  • Succimer
  • Penicillamine

105

Rx Mercury toxicity

  • Dimercaprol
  • Succimer

106

Rx Methanol, ethylene glycol (antifreeze) toxicity

  • Fomepizole > ethanol
  • Dialysis

107

Rx Methemoglobinemia

  • Methylene blue (Fe3+ → Fe2+)
  • Vitamin C

108

Rx Opioid toxicity

Naloxone

109

Rx Salicylate toxicity

  • NaHCO3 (alkalinize urine)
  • Dialysis

110

Rx TCA toxicity

NaHCO3

111

3 Drugs causing Coronary vasospasm

  1. Cocaine
  2. sumatriptan
  3. ergot alkaloids

112

5 Drugs causing cutaneous flushing

VANCE:

  1. Vancomycin
  2. Adenosine
  3. Niacin
  4. Ca2+ channel blockers
  5. Echinocandins

113

Drug causing Dilated cardiomyopathy

  1. Anthracyclines (eg, doxorubicin, daunorubicin)

Prevent with Dexrazoxane

114

5 Drugs causing Torsades de pointes

ABCDE:

  1. AntiArrhythmics (class IA, III)
  2. antiBiotics (eg, macrolides)
  3. anti“C”ychotics (eg, haloperidol)
  4. antiDepressants (eg, TCAs)
  5. antiEmetics (eg, ondansetron)

115

Drug causing Adrenocortical insufficiency

HPA suppression 2° to glucocorticoid withdrawal

116

2 Drugs causing hot flashes

  1. Tamoxifen
  2. clomiphene

117

5 Drugs causing hypERglycemia

  1. Tacrolimus
  2. Protease inhibitors
  3. Niacin
  4. HCTZ
  5. Corticosteroids

118

3 Drugs causing hypOthyroidism

  1. Lithium
  2. amiodarone
  3. sulfonamides

119

Drug causing Acute cholestatic hepatitis, jaundice

Erythromycin

120

12 Drugs causing diarrhea

  1. Acamprosate
  2. acarbose
  3. cholinesterase inhibitors
  4. colchicine
  5. erythromycin
  6. ezetimibe
  7. metformin
  8. misoprostol
  9. orlistat
  10. pramlintide
  11. quinidine
  12. SSRIs

121

4 Drugs causing Focal to massive hepatic necrosis

HAVA:

  1. Halothane
  2. Amanita phalloides (death cap mushroom)
  3. Valproic acid
  4. Acetaminophen

122

5 Drugs causing hepatitis

  1. Rifampin
  2. isoniazid
  3. pyrazinamide
  4. statins
  5. fibrates

123

6 Drugs causing pancreatitis

Drugs Causing A Violent Abdominal Distress:

  1. Didanosine
  2. Corticosteroids
  3. Alcohol
  4. Valproic acid
  5. Azathioprine
  6. Diuretics (furosemide, HCTZ)

124

3 Drugs causing Pill-induced esophagitis

  1. Tetracyclines
  2. bisphosphonates
  3. potassium chloride

Caustic effect minimized with upright posture and adequate water ingestion.

125

3 Drugs causing Pseudomembranous colitis

  1. Clindamycin
  2. ampicillin
  3. cephalosporins

126

6 Drugs causing Agranulocytosis

Can Cause Pretty Major Collapse of Granulocytes:

  1. Clozapine
  2. Carbamazepine
  3. Propylthiouracil
  4. Methimazole
  5. Colchicine
  6. Ganciclovir

127

6 Drugs causing aplastic anemia

Can’t Make New Blood Cells Properly

  1. Carbamazepine
  2. Methimazole
  3. NSAIDs
  4. Benzene
  5. Chloramphenicol
  6. Propylthiouracil

128

2 Drugs causing Direct Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia

  1. Methyldopa
  2. penicillin

129

Drug causing Gray baby syndrome

Chloramphenicol

130

7 Drugs causing Hemolysis in G6PD deficiency

  1. Isoniazid
  2. Sulfonamides
  3. Dapsone
  4. Primaquine
  5. Aspirin
  6. Ibuprofen
  7. Nitrofurantoin

131

3 Drugs causing Megaloblastic anemia

  1. Phenytoin
  2. Methotrexate
  3. Sulfa drugs

132

Drug causing Thrombocytopenia

Heparin

133

2 Drugs causing Thrombotic complications

  • OCPs
  • hormone replacement therapy

134

2 Drugs causing Fat redistribution

  1. Protease inhibitors
  2. Glucocorticoids

135

3 Drugs causing Gingival hyperplasia

  1. Phenytoin
  2. Ca2+ channel blockers
  3. cyclosporine

136

5 Drugs causing Hyperuricemia (gout)

  1. Pyrazinamide
  2. Thiazides
  3. Furosemide
  4. Niacin
  5. Cyclosporine

137

8 Drugs causing myopathy

  1. Fibrates
  2. niacin
  3. colchicine
  4. hydroxychloroquine
  5. interferon-α
  6. penicillamine
  7. statins
  8. glucocorticoids

138

2 Drugs causing Osteoporosis

  1. Corticosteroids
  2. heparin

139

4 Drugs causing Photosensitivity

SAT For Photo:

  1. Sulfonamides
  2. Amiodarone
  3. Tetracyclines,
  4. 5-FU

140

4 Drugs causing Rash (Stevens-Johnson syndrome)

  1. Anti-epileptic drugs (especially lamotrigine)
  2. allopurinol
  3. sulfa drugs
  4. penicillin

141

6 Drugs causing SLE-like syndrome

  1. Sulfa drugs
  2. Hydralazine
  3. Isoniazid
  4. Procainamide
  5. Phenytoin
  6. Etanercept

142

Drug causing tooth discoloration

Tetracyclines

143

Drug causing Tendonitis, tendon rupture, and cartilage damage

Fluoroquinolones

144

2 Drugs causing Cinchonism

  1. Quinidine
  2. quinine

145

3 Drugs causing Parkinson-like syndrome

  1. Antipsychotics
  2. Reserpine
  3. Metoclopramide

146

5 Drugs causing Seizures

  1. Isoniazid (vitamin B6 deficiency)
  2. Bupropion
  3. Imipenem/cilastatin
  4. Tramadol
  5. Enflurane

147

2 Drugs causing Tardive dyskinesia

  1. Antipsychotics
  2. metoclopramide

148

2 Drugs causing Diabetes insipidus

  1. Lithium
  2. demeclocycline

149

2 Drugs causing Fanconi syndrome

  1. Tenofovir
  2. ifosfamide

150

2 Drugs causing Hemorrhagic cystitis

  1. Cyclophosphamide
  2. ifosfamide

Prevent by coadministering with mesna

151

3 Drugs causing interstitial nephritis

  1. Methicillin
  2. NSAIDs
  3. furosemide

152

3 Drugs causing SIADH

  1. Carbamazepine
  2. Cyclophosphamide
  3. SSRIs

153

Drug causing dry cough

ACE Inhibitors (bradykinin)

154

6 Drugs causing Pulmonary fibrosis

  1. Methotrexate
  2. Nitrofurantoin
  3. Carmustine
  4. Bleomycin
  5. Busulfan
  6. Amiodarone

155

4 Drugs causing Antimuscarinic effects

  1. Atropine
  2. TCAs
  3. H1-blockers
  4. antipsychotics

156

5 Drugs causing disulfiram-like reaction

  1. Metronidazole
  2. certain cephalosporins
  3. griseofulvin
  4. procarbazine
  5. 1st-generation sulfonylureas

157

4 Drugs causing Nephrotoxicity / Ototoxicity

  1. Aminoglycosides
  2. Vancomycin
  3. Loop diuretics
  4. Cisplatin
    • Cisplatin toxicity may respond to amifostine.

158

Eight P450 Inducers

  1. Chronic alcohol use
  2. St. John’s wort
  3. Phenytoin
  4. Phenobarbital
  5. Nevirapine
  6. Rifampin
  7. Griseofulvin
  8. Carbamazepine

159

Four P450 Substrates

  1. Anti-epileptics
  2. Theophylline
  3. Warfarin
  4. OCPs

160

Ten P450 Inhibitors

  1. Acute Alcohol Abuse
  2. Ritonavir
  3. Amiodarone
  4. Cimetidine/ciprofloxacin
  5. Ketoconazole
  6. Sulfonamides
  7. Isoniazid (INH)
  8. Grapefruit juice
  9. Quinidine
  10. Macrolides (except azithromycin)

161

8 Sulfa Drugs

  1. Sulfonamide antibiotics
  2. Sulfasalazine
  3. Probenecid
  4. Furosemide
  5. Acetazolamide
  6. Celecoxib
  7. Thiazides
  8. Sulfonylureas

Pts w/sulfa allergies may develop mild to life-threatening fever, UTI, SJS, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, urticaria.

162

Drugs that Disrupt pyrimidine synthesis

  1. Leflunomide
    • inhibits dihydroorotate dehydrogenase
  2. ƒMethotrexate (MTX), trimethoprim (TMP), and pyrimethamine
    • inhibit dihydrofolate reductase (decrease deoxythymidine monophosphate [dTMP]) in humans, bacteria, and protozoa, respectively
  3. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)
    • forms 5-F-dUMP, which inhibits thymidylate synthase (decreases dTMP)

163

Drugs that Disrupt purine synthesis

  1. 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and its prodrug azathioprine: inhibit de novo purine synthesis ƒ
  2. Mycophenolate and ribavirin: inhibit inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase

164

Drugs that Disrupt purine & pyrimidine synthesis

Hydroxyurea: inhibits ribonucleotide reductase