Prentice Ch. 4 - Fitness and Conditioning Techniques Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Prentice Ch. 4 - Fitness and Conditioning Techniques Deck (70):
1

Principles of conditioning

1. safety
2. warm-up/cool-down
3. motivation
4. overload
5. consistency
6. progression
7. intensity
8. specificity
9. individuality
10. minimal stress

2

SAID principle

specific adaptation to imposed demands
- when the body is subjected to stresses and overloads of varying intensities it will gradually adapt over time to overcome whatever demands are placed on it

3

The function of a warm up

- prepare the body physiologically for some upcoming physical work
- gradually stimulate the cardiorespiratory system to moderate degree to increase the blood flow to working skeletal muscles and increase muscle temperature

4

Dynamic warm up

involves continuous movement using hopping, skipping, and bounding activities with several different footwork drills and patterns

5

how long in-between the warm up and the activity should the athlete wait

no longer than 15 minutes to begin main sports activity after warm-up, although the effects may last up to about 45 minutes

6

Cool down

- body returns to resting state
- last about 5-10 minutes

7

Cardiorespiratory endurance

the ability to perform whole-body, large-muscle activities for extended periods of time

8

VO2max

maximum aerobic capacity
- greatest rate at which o2 can be taken in and used during exercise

9

four components of o2 transport

heart
lungs
blood vessels
blood

10

general o2 consumption rule

the greater the rate of intensity of the performance of an activity the greater the o2 consumption

11

activity to fatigue rule

the greater the percentage of maximum o2 consumption required during an activity the less time the activity may be sustained

12

How exercise effects the heart

heart rate shows a gradual adaptation to an increased workload by increasing proportionally to the intensity of the exercise and will plateau at a given level after about 2-3 minutes

13

Stroke volume

- adaptations to increased demands
- the volume of blood being pumped out with each beat
- approx 70ml of blood per beat

14

Cardiac output

- stroke volume and heart rate together determine the volume of blood being pumped though the heart in a give unit of time.
- it indicates how much blood the heart is capable of pumping in exactly 1 minute
- 5 L of blood through the heart each minute at rest

15

Training effect

stroke volume increases while heart rate is reduced at a given exercise load.

16

Cardiac output equation

cardiac output = increased stroke volume x decreased HR

17

ATP

- adenosine triphosphate
- produced in the muscle tissue from blood glucose or glycogen
- immediate energy source

18

Three energy systems

ATP
glycolytic
oxidative system

19

Anaerobic metabolism

- breakdown of glycogen to supply glucose to then generate ATP for muscle contractions without the need for o2
- produces lactic acid

20

aerobic metabolism

- as exercise continues, body rely on complex form of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to generate ATP that requires o2
- normally take around 20 minutes to clear the lactate from the system

21

which energy system is used most?

- Most activities include both aerobic and anaerobic systems.

- The degree at which the two are involved is determined by the intensity and duration of said activity

22

Continuous training considerations

1. frequency of activity
2. intensity of activity
3. type of activity
4. time of activity

23

Frequency

- no fewer than 3 sessions per week
- should aim for 4-5 sessions per week
- competitive athletes should be prepared to train as often as 6 times/week

24

Intensity

- the most critical factor of the 4
- critical in the early stages when the body is forced to make a lot of adjustments
- target rate is determined by target HR

25

maximal HR

220-age

26

Heart Rate Reserve

HHR = HR max - HRrest

27

Karvonen equations

- used to calculate exercise HR at a give percentage of training intensity

- Exercise HR = % of large intensity (HRmax - HRrest) + HR rest

28

Type

- aerobic activities generally involve repetitive, whole body, large-muscle movements performed over an extended time

29

Time

- individuals must participate in at least 20 minutes of continuous activity with the heart rate elevated to its working level
- competitive athletes should train for at least 45 minutes with HR elevated to training levels

30

Interval training

- alternating periods of work with active recovery
- allows for performance of much more work at a more intense workload over a longer period of time than does working continuously

31

Conditioning period

- amount of time that continuous activity is actually being performed

32

Recovery period

time between training periods

33

Speed play

- fartlek
- individuals must run for a specified period of time; however, pace and speed are not specified

34

Muscular strength

the maximum force that can be applied by a muscle during a single maximum contraction

35

Power

the ability to generate force rapidly

36

Muscular endurance

the ability to perform repetitive muscular contractions against some resistance

37

Hypertrophy

enlargement of a muscle caused by an increase in the size of its cells in response to training

38

Atrophy

decrease of a muscle caused by a decrease in the size of its cells because of inactivity

39

Number of muscle fibers is determined by...

genetics and does not seem to increase with training.

40

Theory about myofilaments

myofilaments increase in both size and number as a result of strength training causing the individual muscle fibers themselves to increase in cross-sectional diameter

41

Efficacy is achieved by...

getting more motor units to fire, causing a stronger contraction of the muscle

42

Biomechanical factors

- the length of a muscle determines the tension that can be generated

43

Overtraining

can result in pyschological breakdown (staleness) or physiological breakdown, which may involve musculoskeletal injury, fatigue or sickness

44

Slow Twitch Fibers

- type 1
- slow oxidative
- dense with capillaries and are rich in mitochondria
- they carry more o2
- more resistant to fatigue
- long-duration, aerobic activities

45

Fast-Twitch Fibers

- type IIa, moderately resistant to fatigue

- Type IIx, fast glycolytic, less dense, Type IId, fastest muscle type in humans and it can contract more quickly and with a greater amount of force than type IIa

- can only sustain short, anaerobic bursts of activity before it becomes painful

46

type 2b

less dense
white in color
true fast twitch fibers

47

Muscles contain which fibers?

- any given muscle contains all types of fibers
- those muscle whose primary function is to maintain posture against gravity require more endurance and have higher percentage of slow-twitch fibers
- muscles that produce power, rapid, explosive strength have more fast-twitch fibers

48

Types of Skeletal muscle contractions

- isometric
- concentric
- eccentric

49

Isometric contraction

- occurs when the muscle contracts to increase tension but there is no change in the length of the muscle
- biceps brachii when holding a weight still (bicep curl)

50

Concentric Contraction

- the muscle shortens in length as a contraction is developed to overcome or move some resistance (subscapularis during throwing)

51

Eccentric contraction

- the resistance is greater than the force being produced, and the muscle lengthens while continuing to contract (rotator cuff during throwing)

52

Core stability training

muscles of the lumbar spine, abdomen, hips, and pelvis.

53

Isometric exercise

- contracts the muscle statically without changing its length
- capable of increasing muscular strength unfortunately, strength gains are specific to the joint angle at which training is performed

54

Concentric (positive) contraction

- muscle shortens while contracting against resistance
- accelerate movement

55

Eccentric (negative) contraction

- the muscle lengthens while contracting against resistance
- decelerate movement

56

Isotonic training

shortens and lengthens the muscle though a complete range of motion

57

accommodating resistance

change in resistance at different points in the range

58

isokinetic exercise

exercise at a fixed velocity of movement with accommodating resistance
- machine for post surgery peeps

59

circuit training

exercise stations that consist of various combinations of weight training, flexibility, calisthenics and aerobic exercises

60

Plyometric exercises

type of exercise that takes advantage of the stretch-shortening cycle
- box jumps

61

factors that limit flexibility

1. bony structure
2. excessive fat
3. skin
4. muscles and tendons
5. connective tissue
6. neural tissue tightness

62

Agonist

muscle contracting to cause movement

63

antagonist

muscle being stretched

64

autogenic inhibition

relaxation of the antagonist muscle during contraction

65

ballistic stretching

older stretching technique that uses repetitive bouncing motions

66

dynamic stretching

controlled stretches recommended prior to beginning an activity

67

static stretches

passively stretching an antagonist muscle by placing it in a maximal stretch and holding it there

68

PNF

- proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation
- stretching techniques that involve combination of alternating contractions and stretches

69

Macrocycle

preseason, in season, off season

70

mesocycles

several weeks or months
- transition, preparatory, and competition