Presentation of Diseases of the Kidneys and Urinary Tract Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Presentation of Diseases of the Kidneys and Urinary Tract Deck (85):
1

What is the end of the male urethra called?

Meatus = end of the urinary tract in males

2

What is Phimosis?

A congenital narrowing of the opening of the foreskin so that it cannot be retracted

3

What can phimosis cause?

Difficulty passing urine
Dysuria
Spray of stream

4

What are the 3 parts of the ureter route where a kidney stone can lodge?

Pelvi-ureteric junction
Pelvic Brim
Vesico-ureteric junction

5

What makes up the upper urinary tract?

Kidneys
-Parenchyma
-Pelvi-calyceal system

Ureters
-Pelvi-ureteric junction
-Ureter
-Vesico-ureteric junction

6

What forms the lower urinary tract?

Bladder

Bladder outflow tract
-Bladder neck (intrinsic urethral sphincter)
-Prostate
-External urethral sphincter/ pelvic floor
-Urethral
-Urethral meatus
-Foreskin

7

How does the bladder neck in males and females differ?

Intrinsic/ internal urethral sphincter natural tone is closed in males.

In females it is poorly developed and non functioning so they are totally dependent in their pelvic floor muscles

8

Why is continence effected in men who have their prostate removed?

How is this overcome?

Men who have their prostate removed also have part of bladder neck removed too (this removed the internal urethral sphincter.

Men now must (like women) rely on pelvic floor muscles for continence. In men however these muscles are inderdeveloped through lack of use.

Can train men to strengthen and use these muscles

9

What is a surgical sieve?

AIde memoir for differential diagnosis or aetiologies of a disease.

10

Give an example of a surgical sieve

MEDIC HAT PIN

Metabolic
Endocrine
Degenerative
Infection/ inflammation
Congenital/ Hereditary
Haematological/ Vascular
Autoimmune
Psychological
Idiopathic/ iatrogenic
Neosplastic

11

Give some general presentations of kidney disease

Pain
Pyrexia
Haematuria
Proteinuria
Pyuria
Mass on palpation
Renal failure

12

What is the definition of proteinuria?

Urinary protein excretion >150mg/day

13

How many types of haematuria are there?

2:
-Frank/ Macroscopic
-Microscopic

Some will say there are 3 and that dip stick counts as a third

14

What is the definition of microscopic haematuria?

>/= 3 red blood cells per high power field

15

What is oliguria?

Urine output

16

What is anuria?

TWO TYPES
Absolute anuria:
-no urine output

Relative anuria:
-

17

What is polyuria?

Urine output >3L/24 hours

18

What is nocturia?

Waking up at night >/=1 occasion to micturate

19

What is nocturnal polyuria?

Nocturnal urine output > 1/3 of total urine output in 24 hours

20

In someone presenting with polyuria and polydipsia what should you exclude?

Chronic renal failure
Hypokalaemia
Hyperglycaemia
Hypercalaemia
Thyrotoxicosis
Diuretics
Diet

21

How do you stage acute renal failure/ acute kidney injury?

Mnemonic: RIFLE

Stage 1 (Risk)
Stage 2 (Injury)
Stage 3 (failure)
Stage 4 (Loss)
Stage 5 (End stage kidney disease)

22

What is the definition of stage 1 acute renal failure/ acute kidney injury?

Risk -

Increase in serum creatinine level (1.5x) or

Decrease in GFR by 25% or

Oliguria for 6 hours
-

23

What is the definition of stage 2 acute renal failure/ acute kidney injury?

Injury-

Increase in serum creatinine level (2.0x) or

Decrease in GFR by 50% or

Oliguria for 6 hours
-UO

24

What is the definition of stage 3 acute renal failure/ acute kidney injury?

Failure -

Increase in serum creatinine level (3.0x) or

Decrease in GFR by 75% or

Serum creatinine level >355umol/L with acute increase of >44umol/L or

UO

25

What is the definition of stage 4 acute renal failure/ acute kidney injury?

Loss -

Persistent ARF or complete loss of kidney function > 4 weeks

(damage permanent)

26

What is the definition of stage 5 acute renal failure/ acute kidney injury?

End stage kidney disease -

Complete loss of kidney function > 3 months

27

What are the functions of the kidney?

Body fluid homeostasis

Electrolyte homeostasis

Acid-base homeostasis

Regulation of vascular tone

Excretory functions

Endocrine functions

28

What does chronic renal failure effect?

Think of all the functions of the kidney
Will help you think of how it presents

Body fluid homeostasis
-Fluid overload
---Peripheral oedema
---Congestive cardiac failure
---Pulmonary oedema

Electrolyte homeostasis
-Na+, K+, Cl- etc

Acid-Base Homeostasis
-Secrete H+
-Generate HCO3-

Regulation of vascular tone
-Regulation of BP

Excretory functions
-Physiological waste (esp. urea)
-Drugs

Endocrine functions
-Erythropoeitin
-Vitamin D metabolism
-Renin

29

How does chronic renal failure present?

Asymptomatic (found on blood and urine)

-Tiredness
-Anaemia
-Oedema
-High Blood Pressure
-Bone pain due to renal bone disease

In advanced renal failure:
-Pruritus
-Nausea an Vomiting
-Dyspnoea
-Pericarditis
-Neuropathy
-Coma

30

For obstruction in ureteric disease what should you consider?

Intra-luminal (Stone, blood clot)

Intra-mural (scar tissue, TCC)

Extra-luminal (pelvic mass, lymph nodes)

31

What does TCC stand for?

Transitional cell carcinoma

32

Give some general ways ureteric diseases may present

Pain (e.g. renal colic)

Pyrexia

Haematuria

Palpable mass (i.e. hydronephrosis)

Renal failure (only if bilateral obstruction or single functioning kidney)

33

What are the two types of neoplasia of the bladder?

Transitional cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma of bladder

34

Give some general ways bladder diseases may present

Pain (suprapubic)

Pyrexia

Haematuria

LUTS

Recurrent UTIs

Chronic urinary retention (due to bladder underactivity)

Urinary leak from vagina (i.e. vesico-vaginal fistula)

Pneumaturia (i.e. colo-vesical fistula)

35

What is pneumaturia?

Pneumaturia is the passage of gas or "air" in urine. This may be seen or described as "bubbles in the urine".

36

What is LUTS?

Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

2/3 Types:
-Storage LUTS:
-Voiding LUTS

-Incontinence

37

What is storage LUTS?

-Frequency
-Nocturia
-Urgency
-Urge incontinence

38

What is voiding LUTS?

-Poor flow
-Intermittency
-Terminal dribbling

Due to underactive bladder

39

What are the types of incontinence?

Stress
Urge
Mixed
Overflow
Neurogenic
Dribbling

40

What is stress incontinence?

Occurs when you laugh, sneeze, cough, or otherwise exert pressure on your pelvic floor,

41

What is urge incontinence?

Occurs when you have a sudden and intense urge to urinate - even if you emptied your bladder a short while ago.

42

What is overflow incontinence?

Bladder doesn't empty properly, small amounts dribble out involuntarily. You likely won't sense that your bladder is full and will lose urine without noticing it. You also may feel as though your bladder is never empty.

43

What is mixed incontinence?

This most often involves characteristics of both stress and urge incontinence.

It can include leakage of varying degrees with strenuous physical activity (stress incontinence) and an overwhelmingly strong, sudden, uncontrollable urge to urinate immediately, a sensation that doesn't let you make it to the toilet in time (urge incontinence).

44

What is the risk of bladder cancer in a patient who presents with frank haematuria?

20-25%

45

What is the risk of renal cancer in a patient who presents with frank haematuria?

0.5-1%

46

What are some of the multitude of causes of lower urinary tract symptoms?

Bladder pathology
-over active bladder, UTI, Interstitial cystitis, bladder cancer

Bladder outflow obstruction

Pevlic floor dysfunction

Neurological causes
(i.e. neurogenic bladder dysfunction)

Systemic disorders
-Chronic renal failure
-Cardiac failure
-Diabetes mellitus
-Diabetes insipidus

47

What are some of the neurological causes of lower urinary tract symptoms?

Supra pontine lesions
-e.g. stroke, Alzhiemer's, Parkinson's

Infra-ponstin supra-sacral lesions
-e.g. spinal cord injury, disc prolapse, spina bifida

Infra-sacral
-e.g. MS, Diabetes, cauda equina compression, surgery to retroperitoneum

48

How does the cortical centre play into control of micturition?

Bladder sensation and conscious inhibition of micturition

49

How does the pons play into control of micturition?

Micturition centre

50

How do the sacral segments S2-S4 play into the control of micturition?

Micturition reflex
-Relaxation of internal urethral sphincter (autonomic- sympathetic)

-Relaxation of external urethral sphincter (somatic)

-Contraction of detrusor muscle (autonomic- parasympathetic)

51

What are the two phases of the micturition cycle?

Storage (or filling) phase

Voiding Phase

52

How may bladder outflow tract diseases present?

Pain (suprapubic or perineal)

Pyrexia

Haematuria

LUTS
-Voiding LUTS due to bladder outflow obstruction
-Overflow incontinence
-Stress urinary incontinence

Recurrent UTIs

Acute urinary retention

Chronic urinary retention

53

What is acute urinary tract retention described as?

Painful
Inability to void
Palpable and percussible bladder

54

How much does residual fluid vary in Acute urinary retention?

500ml to >1L depending on time lag in seeking medical attention

55

What is the main risk factor in acute urinary retention?

Benign Prostatic Obstruction (BPO)

But can also occur independently of BPO
-UTI
-Urethral stricture
-Alcohol excess
-Post-operative causes
-Acute surgical or medical problems

56

Fore those with benign prostate obstruction when can acute urinary retention occur?

Spontaneously
-Natural progression of BPO

Triggered by an unrelated event
-Constipation
-Alcohol excess
-Post-operative causes
-Urological procedure

57

What is the immediate treatment of acute urinary retention?

Catheterisation (either urethral or suprapubic)

(once this has been done treat underlying trigger if present)

58

What are the complications of acute urinary retention?

-UTI
-Post-decompensation haematoma
-Pathological diuresis
-Renal failure
-Electrolyte abnormalities

59

What is BPH and BPE?

BPH—benign prostatic hyperplasia, a term that should be used exclusively to describe the histologic changes characteristic of BPH.

BPE—benign prostatic enlargement, a term describing increased size of the gland usually secondary to BPH.

Approximately 50% of men with histologic BPH develop BPE.

60

If acute urinary retention is caused by benign prostatic enlargement how do you tackle it?

If acute urinary retention is due to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) and no renal failure, start alpha blocker immediately and remove catheter in 2 days (60% will void successfully); if fail to void, recatheterise and organise TURP (after 6 weeks)

61

What is chronic urinary retention defined as?

Painless
Palpable and percussible bladder after voiding

Petients are often able to void but with residuals ranging from 400ml to >2 litres depending on stage of condition (i.e. wide spectrum)

62

What is the main aetiological factor of chronic urinary retention?

Detrusor underactivity which can be:
-Primary (i.e. primary bladder failure)

-Secondary (i.e. due to longstanding bladder outflow obstruction (BOO), such as benign prostatic obstruction (BPO) or urethral stricture)

63

How does chronic urinary retention present?

Presents as LUTS or complications (e.g. UTI, bladder stones, overflow incontinence, post-renal or obstructuve renal failure) or incidental finding

64

When do overflow incontinence and renal failure occur in chronic urinary retention?

Occur at severe end of spectrum, when bladder capacity is reached and bladder pressure is in excess of 25cm water (i.e. decompensated chronic urinary retention or acute-on-chronic urinary retention or chronic high-pressure urinary retention)

65

When do you treat chronic urinary retention?

Asymptomatic patients with low residuals do not neccessaritly need treatment

Patients with symptoms or clomplications need treatment (but no role for medical therapy)

66

What is the immediate treatment of chronic urinary retention?

Catheterisation (either urethral or suprapubic initially followed by CISC if appropriate)

67

What are the complications of chronic urinary retention?

UTI

Post-decompression haematuria

Pathological diuresis

Electrolyte abnormalities (Hyponatraemia, hyperkalaemia, metabolic acidosis)

Persistant renal dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis

68

What are the pathological diuresis features of chronic urinary retention?

Urine output >200ml/hr +

Postural hypotension +

Weight loss+

Electrolyte abnormalities

69

What is the definition of postural hypotension?

Systolic differential >20mmHg between lying and standing

70

How do you manage pathological diuresis?

Manage with IV fluids (total input = 90% of output) and monitor closely; liase with renal team

71

What is the subsequent treatment of chronic urinary retention after immediate management?

Either long term urethral or suprapubic catheter, CISC or TURP if due to BPE

72

How does the effectivenes of TURP in chronic urinary retention compare to acute urinary retention?

TURP in chronic retention has a less successful outcome than for acute retention; however; patients with high pressure chronic retention has better outcome with TURP than patients with low pressure chronic retention

73

What is TURP?

Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is a surgical procedure for men that involves removing part of the prostate gland. It's often used to treat a common condition called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), in which the prostate becomes enlarged, causing difficulties with passing urine.

74

What is CISC?

Clean intermittent self catheterisation

Clean Intermittent Self-Catheterization (CISC) is a way to empty the bladder by using a clean catheter. It involves putting the catheter in and taking it out several times a day. CISC helps people who cannot empty their bladders the usual way. By emptying your bladder regularly, you can help prevent bladder infections.

75

What are urinary tract infections defined as?

Infection affecting urinary tract (including kidneys, bladder, prostate, testis and epididymis)

76

What is required for a diagnosis of UTI?

Microbiological evidence AND symptoms/signs:

1. Microbiological evidence: bacterial count of 10^4cfu/ml FROM MSSU SPECIMEN with no more than 2 species of micro-organism

2. Symptoms/signs of at least ONE of the following:
-Fever >38 degrees;
-Loin/flank pain or tenderness
-Suprapubic pain or tenderness
-Urinary frequency
-Urinary urgency
-Dysuria

77

What are the two types of UTI?

Uncomplicated UTIs
-Young sexually active females only with clear relation to sexual activity

Complicated UTIs
-Everyone else
-Always need to be investigated

78

What factors should you consider when differentiating between complicated and Uncomplicated UTI?

-Age

-Sexual activity (females)
-Gender

-Co-morbidities (e.g. immunosuppression, renal failure, medications)

-Abnormal renal tract (e.g. stones, renal outflow obstruction, BOO, horseshoe kidney, VU reflux, renal scarring, bladder tumour)

-Foreign body (e.g. catheter, ureteric stent)

-Type of organism (E. coli, Staph. sparophyticus, Klebsiella Proteus, Pseudomonas, Staoh aureus)

79

What does the presentation of UTI depend on?

Organ affected:
-Bladder (cystitis)
-Prostate (prostatitis)
-Kidney (pyelonephritis)
-Testes (Orchitis)

80

What is the definition of Recurrent UTI?

>3 UTIs per year (or >2 in 6 months)

81

What is the definition of relapsed UTI?

UTI by same organism within 2 weeks of preceding UTI

(usually indicative of inadequately treated UTI e.g. wrong antibiotic, dose or duration)

82

What are the complications of UTI?

Infective:
-Sepsis (esp. pyelonephritis)
-Perinephric abscess

Renal failure (scarring)

Bladder malignancy (SCC)

Acute urinary retention

Frank haematuria

Bladder or renal stones

83

What are the investigations for UTI?

MSSU/ CSU

Lower tract:
-Flow studies
-Residual bladder scan
-Cytoscopy

Upper tract:
-USS kidneys
-IVU/CT-KUB
-MAG-3 renogram
-DMSA scan

84

What is the treatment for UTI?

Appropriate antibiotic therapy (type? duration? route?)

Treat complications and cause

85

Give some emergencies related to UTI

Acute renal failure

Sepsis due to UTI +/- upper or lower urinary tract obstruction

Renal colic

Severe haematuria -> hypovolaemic shock

Metastatic disease causing:
-metabolic derangements (e.g. hypercalcaemia from bony mets),
-Spinal cord compression from vertebral mets

Acute urinary retention

Chronic high pressure urinary retention

Iatrogenic injury/ Trauma to upper or lower urinary tracts, penis and testes

Testicular torsion

Paraphimosis

Priapism