Flashcards in Prevention and treatment of viral disease Deck (18):
Preventing the diseases before the aetiological agent is acquired, by vaccination or giving the drug before infection
What are the four broad types of virus vaccines?
Describe each of the types of virus vaccines.
Live Attenuated – live virus has its virulence reduced and then is administered to the patient
Inactivated – the virus is taken and its genome is destroyed so that it is still stimulates a response but can no longer be infectious – given with adjuvant
Purified Subunits – the viral genome is taken and treated with proteases which chops it into small pieces. These subunits have antigens that can trigger an immune response.
Cloning – viral genome is cloned in a bacterium and the copies of the genome are either:
Injected into people
Put into virus-like particles
A new virus is made with a little segment of virulent material from the original virus
State what type of vaccine has been produced for each of these diseases:
Polio – inactivated + live attenuated
Smallpox – live attenuated
Rubella – live attenuated
Hepatitis B – cloned subunit
Influenza – inactivated + live attenuated
HPV – cloned subunit
How are Live Attenuated Vaccines made?
The virus is passed through the wrong type/wrong species of cells this makes the virus evolve and change its virulence e.g. if a virus is passed through monkey cells then it will become a monkey virus and it will no longer be as virulent to humans
What are some differences between live attenuated vaccines and inactivated vaccines?
Live attenuated vaccines give rapid, broad, long-lived immunity, dose sparing
Inactivated vaccines often require boosters, high doses needed, safe
What types of vaccines exist for influenza?
Purified subunit vaccine
Live-attenuated (nasal spray)
What types of vaccines exist for polio?
SALK – inactivated
SABINE – live attenuated
How are recombinant attenuated virus vaccines made?
The virulence gene is either mutated or deleted
What type of vaccine does rotavirus have?
Live attenuated reassortant
Give two examples of subunit vaccines.
Hepatitis B Virus
What is the best available broad antiviral therapy and what are the limitations of it?
Interferons – it activates inflammation and fever and can make the patient feel even more ill
What are the two strategies for inhibiting influenza?
Blocking the M2 channel
Describe inhibition of the M2 channel in influenza.
When endocytosed, influenza virus enters the endosome
The low pH of the endosome opens the M2 channel allowing protons to move into the endosome and break the bonds holding together the protein capsid of influenza
This allows influenza to uncoat and release its contents into the cytoplasm of the cell
Adamantes (rimantadine and amanatadine) can fit in the M2 channel and prevent protons from moving in, thus meaning that the influenza is locked in its protein shell
Describe neuraminidase inhibition in influenza.
Neuraminidase is usually produced by influenza to destroy sialic acid on the surface of the host cell thus meaning that the virus doesn’t bind to the same cell again
By blocking neuraminidase you can limit the spread of the virus to other cells
Give two examples of neuraminidase inhibitors.
Give eight examples of HIV drugs.