Proteins & Amino Acids Flashcards Preview

Human Nutrition > Proteins & Amino Acids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Proteins & Amino Acids Deck (60):
1

protein definition

compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms arranged into strands of amino acids

2

some amino acids also contain ____ atoms

sulfur

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amino acid definition

building blocks of protein

4

what is an amino acid made of

amino group and acid group attached to a central carbon that has a distinctive side chain

5

what determines amino acid function

the way they're lined up

6

3 types of amino acid

valine

leucine

tyrosine

7

dipeptide

2 amino acids bonded together

8

tripeptide

3 amino acids bonded together

9

polypeptide

10 or more amino acids bonded together

10

oligopeptide

intermediate strand of 4-10 amino acids bonded together

11

AA sequence

attracts or repels to give it the direction it will fold into

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essential amino acids

amino acids that the body cannot synthesize in sufficient amounts to meet physiological need

aka. indispensable amino acids

9 known

13

types of essential amino acids (1-5)

histidine

isoleucine

leucine

lysine

methionine

14

types of essential amino acids (6-9)

phenylalanine

threonine

tryptophan

valine

15

non-essential amino acids

body can synthesize from consumed essential amino acids

11 known

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conditionally essential amino acid

normally a non-essential amino acid that becomes essential in special circumstances

must be consumed in diet

cysteine

glutamine

17

functions of proteins in the body

enzymes

antibodies

fluid & electrolyte balance

acid/base rxns

hormones

18

enzyme

protein catalysts make rxn faster/more efficient

facilitates chemical rxns without being changed in the process

all enzymes are proteins

19

antibodies

large proteins of blood and body fluids produced in response to the body being invaded by antigens

purpose is to inactivate the invaders to protect the body

adequate protein is needed to produce antibodies

20

antigen

unfamiliar molecules (mostly proteins) that stimulate an immune response

21

hormones

chemical messengers secreted by glands in the body in response to altered conditions

travels to one or more target tissues/organs and stimulates specific responses to restore normal conditions

some hormones are proteins, some are sterols

22

3 types of body fluids

intracellular

interstitial (between cells)

intravascular

23

fluid and electrolyte balance

maintenance of the necessary amounts and types of fluids and minerals in each compartment of body fluids

24

serum albumin

maintains fluid id blood vessels

25

edema

swelling of body tissue caused by leakage of fluid from vessels and accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces

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acid base balance

balance between acid and base concentrations in body fluids and blood

body produces acids and bases during normal functions (carried to lungs & kidneys through blood)

if blood is too acidic or basic than proteins denature

27

denature

chance in a protein's shape

past a certain point, denaturation is irreversible

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pH

concentration of hydrogen ions

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acidosis

too much acid in blood & body fluids

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alkalosis

too much base in blood & body fluids

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buffers

compounds that can reversibly combine with hydrogen ions to keep a solution's acidity or alkalinity constant

32

how much protein do we need a day?

normal people 0.8 g / kg / day

athletes 1.2 g / kg / day

body builders/injured 1.5 g / kg / day

33

dietary amino acids

used primarily for protein synthesis

not stored like fat or carbohydrates

34

what happens to excess protein?

degrades and produces urea

35

who shouldn't get protein?

chronic kidney disease w/ no dialysis

liver failure w/ encephalopathy

36

nitrogen balance

amount of nitrogen consumed vs. excreted in a given period of time

lab tech can estimate protein in a sample of food, body tissue, or poop by measuring nitrogen in it

37

nitrogen equilibrium

zero nitrogen balance

N in = N out

38

positive nitrogen balance

N in > N out

kids, pregnant women, sick people (anorexics, trauma, burns)

39

negative nitrogen balance

N out > N in

anorexics, trauma, burns, HIV/AIDS

40

how to figure out your protein need

find body weight in lbs then convert to kg

multiply kg by 0.8 g

41

protein synthesis after activity

increases

42

7-28 gm protein per day gained during ...

muscle building phase of training

43

what type of diet spares protein?

carbohydrate rich

44

BCAA

can be used instead of glucose directly into muscle tissue

45

what depletes glycogen

endurance with aerobic activity of moderate intensity and long duration

46

effect of degree of training?

higher degree uses less protein

47

complete protein

contains all amino acids essential in human nutrition in adequate amounts

48

incomplete protein

lacking or low in one or more of the essential amino acids

49

high-quality protein

easily digestible complete protein

50

limiting amino acid

essential amino acid that is present in dietary protein in the shorted supply relative to the amount needed for protein synthesis in the body

51

mutual supplementation

combining two incomplete protein sources to form a more complete protein

aka. complementary proteins

52

complementary proteins

two or more proteins whose amino acid assortments complement each other

supply the amino acid the other is lacking

53

vegetarian diets need...

adequate nutrient/energy intakes

balance

variety

moderate fat, sodium, alcohol & caffeine

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vegetarian diets are generally...

lower in fat & cholesterol

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concerns with vegetarian diets

energy needs

B12

vitamin D

zinc & iron (soy inhibits zinc absorption)

calcium

56

types of vegetarians

lacto-ovo

lacto

semi-vegetarian

vegan

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lacto-ovo vegetarian

include milk & eggs

no meat, fish, shellfish, poultry

58

lacto-vegetarian

include milk

no eggs, meat, fish, shellfish, poultry

59

semi-vegetarians

include some, but not all animal products

usually no meat, but will eat fish, shellfish, poultry

60

vegan

exclude all animal-derived foods