PSYCH Chapter 1: The Science Of Psychology Flashcards Preview

xxx Term 1: PSYCH 110 Introduction to Psychology > PSYCH Chapter 1: The Science Of Psychology > Flashcards

Flashcards in PSYCH Chapter 1: The Science Of Psychology Deck (43):
1

1. In the definition of psychology, mental processes means:

A. Internal, covert processes
B. Unconscious processes
C. Outward or overt actions and reactions
D. Only human nature

A. Internal, covert processes

Chapter 1: Practice Quiz, Page 13

2

2. Dr. Baker designs an experiment for studying lab rats' reaction to energy drinks in relation to problem solving. Dr. Baker is most interested in the goal of:

A. Description
B. Explanation
C. Prediction
D. Control

B. Explanation

Chapter 1: Practice Quiz, Page 13

3

3. Results of the study by Cheryan test al. (2009) suggests that changes must occur to the perception of the computer science field. This illustrates the goal of:

A. Description
B. Explanation
C. Prediction
D. Control

C. Prediction

Chapter 1: Practice Quiz, Page 13

4

4. Which of the following early psychologists would have been most likely to agree with the statement, "The study of the mind should focus on how it functions in everyday like"?

A. Wilhelm Wundt
B. William James
C. John Watson
D. Sigmund Freud

B. William James

Chapter 1: Practice Quiz, Page 13

5

5. Who was the first woman to complete the coursework for a doctorate at Harvard University?

A. Mary Whiton Calkins
B. Mary Cover Jones
C. Margaret Washburn
D. Ruth Howard

A. Mary Whiton Calkins

Chapter 1: Practice Quiz, Page 13

6

6. Which early perspective tried to return to a focus on scientific inquiry by ignoring he study of consciousness?

A. Behaviorism
B. Functionalism
C. Psychoanalysis
D. Gestalt

A. Behaviorism

Chapter 1: Practice Quiz, Page 13

7

1. Which of the following perspectives focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics?

A. Humanistic
B. Behaviorial
C. Psychodynamic
D. Evolutionary

D. Evolutionary

Chapter 1: Practice Quiz, Page 19

8

2. Which perspective offers the best explanation for schizophrenia?

A. Psychodynamic
B. Behaviorial
C. Biopsychological
D. Humanistic

C. Biopsychological

Chapter 1: Practice Quiz, Page 19

9

3. Wesley has learned that if he cries with his other in public, she will often get him a new toy or a piece of candy so as to quiet him. Which of the following perspectives explains Wesley's behavior?

A. Psychodynamic
B. Cognitive
C. Behaviorial
D. Biopsychological

C. Behaviorial

Chapter 1: Practice Quiz, Page 19

10

4. Which perspective would a researcher would be taking if she were studying a client's early childhood experiences and his resulting developing self?

A. Psychodynamic
B. Cognitive
C. Behaviorial
D. Evolutionary

A. Psychodynamic

Chapter 1: Practice Quiz, Page 19

11

5. Which of the following professionals in psychology has no medical training but has a doctoral degree?

A. Psychiatrist
B. Psychiatric Nurse
C. Psychiatric Social Worker
D. Psychologist

D. Psychologist

Chapter 1: Practice Quiz, Page 19

12

6. If Dr. Swasey us like most psychologists, where does she work?

A. University / College
B. Self-Employed
C. Federal Government
D. State or Local Government

A. University / College

Chapter 1: Practice Quiz, Page 19

13

1. In the scientific method, the final step is:

A. Report your results
B. Perceiving a question
C. Drawing conclusions
D. Testing your hypothesis

A. Report your results.

Chapter 1: Practice Quiz, Page 26

14

2. Which of the following is an example of observer bias?

A. You ask your fellow students to be participants in a study for adult memory.
B. You ask person from your church to participate in a study of family values.
C. You develop an opinion of what you expect to see in an experiment.
D. You allow a student to quit an experiment simply because he or she is bored.

C. You develop an opinion of what you expect to see in an experiment.

Chapter 1: Practice Quiz, Page 26

15

3. The greatest advantage to using a case study is that:

A. Researchers can gather data from large groups of people.
B. There is a tremendous amount of detail that can be gathered.
C. It can be help in forming a hypothesis which can later be tested.
D. It uses animals instead of humans and therefore does not endanger the subjects.

B. There is a tremendous amount of detail that can be gathered.

Chapter 1: Practice Quiz, Page 26

16

4. The main advantage of a survey is that:

A. Only a small number of subjects need to be accessed.
B. A large amount of data can be gathered.
C. The chance of experimenter error is removed.
D. Subjects will not know if they are part of a control or experimental group.

B. A large amount of data can be gathered.

Chapter 1: Practice Quiz, Page 26

17

5. By using __________, researchers can maximize the likelihood of a representative sample.

A. Very few individuals from a larger group
B. Random selection from a larger group
C. Case studies
D. Participant observation

B. Random selection from a larger group

Chapter 1: Practice Quiz, Page 26

18

1. Which of the following would indicated the weakest relationship and thus be close to complete randomness?

A. +1.04
B. -0.89
C. +0.01
D. -0.98

C. +0.01

Chapter 1: Practice Quiz, Page 37

19

2. In an experiment to examine the effects of sleep deprivation on completion of a puzzle, one group is allowed to sleep eight hours while another group is made to stay awake. In this experiment, the control group is:

A. The group that gets to sleep.
B. The group the remains awake.
C. The puzzle.
D. The difference in time for each group to complete the puzzle.

A. The group that gets to sleep.

Chapter 1: Practice Quiz, Page 37

20

3. In a __________ study, the participants do not know if they are part of the control group or the experimental group. One the experimenter knows who is in each group.

A. Placebo
B. Single-Blind
C. Double-Blind
D. Triple-Blind

B. Single-Blind

Chapter 1: Practice Quiz, Page 37

21

4. In the "dumb jock" stereotype threat experiment, what was the independent variable?

A. The degree of stereotype threat
B. The testing room
C. The scores on the intellectual test
D. The intelligence level of the athletes

A. The degree of stereotype threat

Chapter 1: Practice Quiz, Page 37

22

5. What is the first guideline for doing research with people?

A. Participants have to give informed consent.
B. Deception cannot be used in any studies with human beings.
C. The rights and well-being of the participants must come first.
D. Data must remain confidential.

C. The rights and well-being of the participants must come first.

Chapter 1: Practice Quiz, Page 37

23

6. What is the biggest reason why we use animals in research?

A. Animals have simple behavior that makes it easy to see changes.
B. Animals don't live as long as humans.
C. We can do things to animals that we can't do to people.
D. Animals are easier to control.

C. We can do things to animals that we can't do to people.

Chapter 1: Practice Quiz, Page 37

24

1. In the definition of psychology, the term behavior means:

A. Internal, covert processes
B. Outward behavior
C. Overt actions and reactions
D. Only animal behavior

C. Overt actions and reactions

Chapter 1: Test Yourself, Page 42

25

2. A psychologist is interested in finding out why married couples seemingly begin to look like each other after several years of marriage. This psychologist is most interested in the goal of:

A. Description
B. Explanation
C. Prediction
D. Control

B. Explanation

Chapter 1: Test Yourself, Page 42

26

3. Who is considered to be the father of African American psychology?

A. Charles Henry Thompson
B. Robert V. Guthrie
C. Francis Cecil Sumner
D. Howard Hale Long

C. Francis Cecil Sumner

Chapter 1: Test Yourself, Page 42

27

4. Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis focused on:

A. Observable behavior
B. Gestalt perceptions
C. Introspection
D. Early childhood experiences

D. Early childhood experiences

Chapter 1: Test Yourself, Page 42

28

5. Which psychologist dared to ignore the whole consciousness issues and returned to a study of scientific inquiry by focusing on observable behavior?

A. Ivan Pavlov
B. John Watson
C. Sigmund Freud
D. William James

B. John Watson

Chapter 1: Test Yourself, Page 42

29

6. Which perspectives is often referred to as the "third force" in psychology and focuses on a person's freedom of choice in determining their behavior?

A. Biopsychological perspective
B. Behaviorism
C. Cognitive psychology
D. Humanism

D. Humanism

Chapter 1: Test Yourself, Page 42

30

7. Which perspective best explains the bystander effect whereby individuals will be less likely to help someone in need because of the presence of others close by?

A. Psychoanalysis
B. Behaviorism
C. Cognitive psychology
D. Sociocultural

D. Sociocultural

Chapter 1: Test Yourself, Page 42

31

8. If Dr. Buyers uses an eclectic approach in her clinical treatment of children, what is it that she is doing?

A. She is relying primarily on one psychological perspective to treat all her patients.
B. She is using medications with all her patients, especially those suffering from depression.
C. She relies heavily on the Freudian psychodynamic perspective to help children who show abnormal behavior.
D. She is using a combination of perspectives to treat different clients.

D. She is using a combination of perspectives to treat different clients.

Chapter 1: Test Yourself, Page 42

32

9. Dr. Colton identifies himself with the largest subfield of psychology. What kind of psychologist is he?

A. Counseling
B. Clinical
C. School
D. Experimental

B. Clinical

Chapter 1: Test Yourself, Page 42

33

10. Micah has recently been diagnosed with a psychological disorder that is best addressed initially with medication. He would likely benefit the most by first seeing a __________.

A. Psychiatrist
B. Psychoanalyst
C. Psychiatric social worker
D. Psychologist

A. Psychiatrist

Chapter 1: Test Yourself, Page 42

34

11. Which step in the scientific method is derived from the goal of description?

A. Reporting your results
B. Perceiving a question
C. Drawing conclusions
D. Forming a hypothesis

B. Perceiving a question

Chapter 1: Test Yourself, Page 42

35

12. Brianne wants to find an explanation for the behavior of her lab rats in her study. Which step in the scientific method is she currently focusing on?

A. Testing a hypothesis
B. Perceiving a question
C. Drawing conclusions
D. Reporting her results

A. Testing a hypothesis

Chapter 1: Test Yourself, Page 42

36

13. The famous study of Phineas Gage, who survived when a metal rod pierced his skull, is an example of a:

A. Laboratory experiment
B. Correlation
C. Case study
D. Survey

C. Case study

Chapter 1: Test Yourself, Page 42

37

14. A researcher finds that as her subjects increased the number of hours they spent exercising, the overall weight of her subjects decreased. This would be an example of a (BLANK) correlation.

A. Positive
B. Negative
C. Zero
D. Casual

B. Negative

Chapter 1: Test Yourself, Page 42

38

15. A researcher wants to study the effects of texting on driving. Students in Group A drive a car in a computer game and see how many virtual accidents they have. Students in Group B are asked to drive the same virtual car but they must respond to and send at least three texts. The number of virtual accidents is measured for each group. What is the independent variable?

A. The virtual car
B. Texting
C. The number of virtual accidents
D. The group assignment

B. Texting

Chapter 1: Test Yourself, Page 43

39

16. A researcher asks an assistant to conduct a study on her behalf. She specifically tells her assistant only to share the results anonymously and not include the names of the students along with their scores. Such an experiment would be considered a

A. Double-blind experiment
B. Single-blind experiment
C. Correlation study
D. Laboratory observation

A. Double-blind experiment

Chapter 1: Test Yourself, Page 43

40

17. Double-blind studies control for

A. The placebo effect
B. The experimenter effect
C. The placebo effect and the experimenter effect
D. Extrinsic motivation

C. The placebo effect and the experimenter effect

Chapter 1: Test Yourself, Page 43

41

18. In the stereotypes and athletes study, who was the control group?

A. Those students who completed the survey prior to the intelligence test
B. Those students who completed the survey after the intelligence test
C. Those student who were not asked to complete the intelligence test
D. Those students who did not take part in the study at all

A. Those students who completed the survey prior to the intelligence test

Chapter 1: Test Yourself, Page 43

42

19. Dr. Calvin needs just one more participant to complete her experiment. Lisa, a student of Dr. Calvin, has almost completed the experiment when she announces she wants to quit because the experiment is boring. What options does Dr. Calvin have?

A. Dr. Calvin can require that Lisa finish because students don't have the same rights to quit an experiment as the general public does.
B. Dr. Calvin can require that Lisa finish because boredom is not an acceptable excuse for quitting.
C. Dr. Calvin can make Lisa stay since she is a student of hers and she requires students to take part in her experiments.
D. Dr. Calvin must let Lisa go and find another participant.

D. Dr. Calvin must let Lisa go and find another participant.

Chapter 1: Test Yourself, Page 43

43

20. A famous golfer advertises a new golf bracelet that helps minimize fatigue while playing. If Bethany decided to order the bracelet because she believes that such a well-known personality should know if it works or not, she has made an error in which of the following?

A. Few "truths" do not need to be tested
B. All evidence is not equal in quality
C. Authority or expertise does not make claims of the authority or expert true
D. Critical thinking requires an open mind

C. Authority or expertise does not make claims of the authority or expert true

Chapter 1: Test Yourself, Page 43