Quiz 1: Chapter 1 & 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 1: Chapter 1 & 2 Deck (74):
1

What is life span development?

the pattern of movement and change that begins and conception and continues throughout the life span

2

What are the characteristics of life span development?

Development is: lifelong, multidimensional, multidisciplinary, plastic, contextual, involves growth, maintenance and regulation, and is constructed of biology, culture, and the individual.

3

What is context?

Setting

4

What are 3 contextual influences?

Normative Age Graded influences, Normative History Graded influences, and Non-Normative influences

5

What is Normative Age Graded Influences?

things that are similar to people in the same age group

6

What is Normative History Graded Influences?`

things that are similar to people who were alive during a certain historic event (generational things)

7

What is a Non-Normative Influence?

Something that cannot be predicted, unanticipated events

8

What is life expectancy?

The average age that a child born in a given year, in a given context, can expect to live to be.

9

What is median age?

The age when half of the population is older and half the population is younger.

10

What contributes to median age?

Baby boomers, health care, life expectancy, and family size

11

What is one of the main key determinants of health?

Socio-Economic Status

12

What are the three developmental processes?

Biological, Cognitive, and Socio-Emotional

13

What are Biological Processes?

Change in physical nature

14

What are Cognitive Processes?

Change in thought, intelligence and language

15

What are Socio-Emotional Processes?

Change in relationships, emotions and personality.

16

What are the five types of age?

Chronological, biological, mental, psychological, social

17

What is chronological age?

numeric age

18

What is biological age?

age in terms of health

19

What is mental age?

Age in terms of problem solving skills

20

What is Psychological age?

Age in terms of adaptational skills

21

What is social age?

social roles related to chronological age

22

What are the 3 issues in lifespan development?

nature vs. nurture, continuity vs. discontinuity, stability vs. change

23

What is the nature vs. nurture issue?

whether development is caused by biology or environment

24

What is continuity vs. discontinuity?

whether development is continual and cumulative or distinct changes

25

What is stability vs change?

Do we become older versions of the same person or do we change who we are as we grow

26

What are socio-cultural contexts?

the way culture, ethnicity, race and gender can influence society

27

What is culture?

behaviour patterns, beliefs, and other products of a group that are passed on

28

What is ethnicity?

based on cultural heritage, nationality characteristics, race, religion and language

29

What is race?

classification based on real or imagined biological characteristics

30

What is gender?

the social and psychological dimensions of being male or female

31

What is social policy?

National government's course of action designed to influence the welfare of it's citizens

32

What are the four steps of the scientific method?

1) conceptualize a problem (create a theory/hypothesis)
2) collect data
3) analyze data
4) draw a conclusion

33

What are the 5 methods of data collection?

observational, survey/interview, case study, standardized test, physiological measures

34

What are the 3 kinds of research designs?

Correlational research, Descriptive research, and experimental research

35

What are the three time spans of research?

Cross sectional, longitudinal, and sequential

36

What is cross sectional research?

data collected from individuals of different ages at the same time

37

What is longitudinal research?

data collected from the same individuals over a period of time

38

What is sequential research?

combination of cross sectional and longitudinal

39

What is a cohort effect?

an effect due to persons of the same generation or time of birth but not to the age. Can effect the dependent variable.

40

What method of research is used to eliminate cohort effects?

Sequential

41

Who are the two psychoanalytic theorists?

Freud, Erikson

42

Who developed the psychosexual theory?

Freud

43

Who developed the psychosocial theory?

Erikson

44

What is the psychoanalytic approach?

unconscious development, lead by emotion. behaviour is a surface characteristic that can be analyzed to find the deeper meaning

45

What is the psychosexual theory?

The idea that we develop based on unconscious thoughts related to our sexual feelings. dream analysis can be used to uncover repressed thoughts.

46

What are the three factors of Freud's theory of personality?

id, ego, superego

47

What are the five psychosexual stages?

Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital. Conflict at each stage and conflict resolution determines adult self.

48

What are the main differences between Erikson's theory and Freud's theory?

Freud = sexual, during childhood, Erikson = social, lifelong

49

What are the eight stages of the psychosocial theory?

1) Trust vs. Mistrust
2) Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt
3) Initiative vs. Guilt
4) Industry vs. Inferiority
5) Identity vs. Isolation
6) Intimacy vs. Isolation
7) Generativity vs. Stagnation
8) Integrity vs. Despair

50

What is the cognitive approach?

An approach that assumes development is conscious

51

Who are the cognitive approach theorists?

Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky

52

What is Jean Piaget's theory?

Children activity construct an understanding of their world by assimilation and accomodation

53

What is assimilation?

working new info into existing info

54

What is accomodation?

making a new spot for info that doesn't fit in with existing info

55

What are Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development?

Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, and Formal Operational

56

What is the sensorimotor stage?

incorporating sensory info with actions

57

What is the preoperational stage?

connecting sensory/motor to words and images

58

What is concrete operational?

logical reasoning and classification

59

What is formal operational?

abstract, idealistic and logical reasoning

60

What is the information Processing approach?

manipulating, monitoring, and strategizing info. central to memory and thinking

61

What is the behavioural and social cognitive approach?

the theory that behaviour, environment and cognitive factors are important in understanding development

62

What are three examples of Behavioural/Social cognitive approaches?

Pavlov, Skinner, Bandura

63

What is the ethological approach?

the study of animal behaviour

64

Who are some examples of ethological theorists?

Darwin (natural selection), Konrad Lorenz (imprinting), Jane Goodall (chimps vs. humans), John Bowlby (attachment to caregiver)

65

What is the humanistic approach?

the idea that people aim to be their best self

66

Who are some humanistic theorists?

Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow

67

What is Carl Roger's Theory?

Congruence vs. Incongruence, aim to be your best self

68

What is Maslow's hierarchy of needs?

Physiological, Safety, Love/Belonging, Esteem, Self Actualization

69

Who created the Bio-Ecological Approach?

Urie Bronfenbrenner

70

What is the Bio-Ecological Approach?

The idea that environment influences development

71

What are the five levels of the Bio-Ecological Approach?

Microsystem, Mesosystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, Chronosystem

72

What are the contemporary psychology approaches?

Dynamic systems, evolutionary psych, neuroscience, positive psych

73

What is the eclectic approach?

a collection of all of the best parts of each of the theories

74

What are the eight approaches?

Psychoanalytic, Cognitive, Behavioural/Social Cognitive, Ethological, Humanist, Bio-Ecological, Contemporary Psychology, Eclectic