Flashcards in Quiz 1: Chapter 1 & 2 Deck (74):
What is life span development?
the pattern of movement and change that begins and conception and continues throughout the life span
What are the characteristics of life span development?
Development is: lifelong, multidimensional, multidisciplinary, plastic, contextual, involves growth, maintenance and regulation, and is constructed of biology, culture, and the individual.
What is context?
What are 3 contextual influences?
Normative Age Graded influences, Normative History Graded influences, and Non-Normative influences
What is Normative Age Graded Influences?
things that are similar to people in the same age group
What is Normative History Graded Influences?`
things that are similar to people who were alive during a certain historic event (generational things)
What is a Non-Normative Influence?
Something that cannot be predicted, unanticipated events
What is life expectancy?
The average age that a child born in a given year, in a given context, can expect to live to be.
What is median age?
The age when half of the population is older and half the population is younger.
What contributes to median age?
Baby boomers, health care, life expectancy, and family size
What is one of the main key determinants of health?
What are the three developmental processes?
Biological, Cognitive, and Socio-Emotional
What are Biological Processes?
Change in physical nature
What are Cognitive Processes?
Change in thought, intelligence and language
What are Socio-Emotional Processes?
Change in relationships, emotions and personality.
What are the five types of age?
Chronological, biological, mental, psychological, social
What is chronological age?
What is biological age?
age in terms of health
What is mental age?
Age in terms of problem solving skills
What is Psychological age?
Age in terms of adaptational skills
What is social age?
social roles related to chronological age
What are the 3 issues in lifespan development?
nature vs. nurture, continuity vs. discontinuity, stability vs. change
What is the nature vs. nurture issue?
whether development is caused by biology or environment
What is continuity vs. discontinuity?
whether development is continual and cumulative or distinct changes
What is stability vs change?
Do we become older versions of the same person or do we change who we are as we grow
What are socio-cultural contexts?
the way culture, ethnicity, race and gender can influence society
What is culture?
behaviour patterns, beliefs, and other products of a group that are passed on
What is ethnicity?
based on cultural heritage, nationality characteristics, race, religion and language
What is race?
classification based on real or imagined biological characteristics
What is gender?
the social and psychological dimensions of being male or female
What is social policy?
National government's course of action designed to influence the welfare of it's citizens
What are the four steps of the scientific method?
1) conceptualize a problem (create a theory/hypothesis)
2) collect data
3) analyze data
4) draw a conclusion
What are the 5 methods of data collection?
observational, survey/interview, case study, standardized test, physiological measures
What are the 3 kinds of research designs?
Correlational research, Descriptive research, and experimental research
What are the three time spans of research?
Cross sectional, longitudinal, and sequential
What is cross sectional research?
data collected from individuals of different ages at the same time
What is longitudinal research?
data collected from the same individuals over a period of time
What is sequential research?
combination of cross sectional and longitudinal
What is a cohort effect?
an effect due to persons of the same generation or time of birth but not to the age. Can effect the dependent variable.
What method of research is used to eliminate cohort effects?
Who are the two psychoanalytic theorists?
Who developed the psychosexual theory?
Who developed the psychosocial theory?
What is the psychoanalytic approach?
unconscious development, lead by emotion. behaviour is a surface characteristic that can be analyzed to find the deeper meaning
What is the psychosexual theory?
The idea that we develop based on unconscious thoughts related to our sexual feelings. dream analysis can be used to uncover repressed thoughts.
What are the three factors of Freud's theory of personality?
id, ego, superego
What are the five psychosexual stages?
Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital. Conflict at each stage and conflict resolution determines adult self.
What are the main differences between Erikson's theory and Freud's theory?
Freud = sexual, during childhood, Erikson = social, lifelong
What are the eight stages of the psychosocial theory?
1) Trust vs. Mistrust
2) Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt
3) Initiative vs. Guilt
4) Industry vs. Inferiority
5) Identity vs. Isolation
6) Intimacy vs. Isolation
7) Generativity vs. Stagnation
8) Integrity vs. Despair
What is the cognitive approach?
An approach that assumes development is conscious
Who are the cognitive approach theorists?
Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky
What is Jean Piaget's theory?
Children activity construct an understanding of their world by assimilation and accomodation
What is assimilation?
working new info into existing info
What is accomodation?
making a new spot for info that doesn't fit in with existing info
What are Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development?
Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, and Formal Operational
What is the sensorimotor stage?
incorporating sensory info with actions
What is the preoperational stage?
connecting sensory/motor to words and images
What is concrete operational?
logical reasoning and classification
What is formal operational?
abstract, idealistic and logical reasoning
What is the information Processing approach?
manipulating, monitoring, and strategizing info. central to memory and thinking
What is the behavioural and social cognitive approach?
the theory that behaviour, environment and cognitive factors are important in understanding development
What are three examples of Behavioural/Social cognitive approaches?
Pavlov, Skinner, Bandura
What is the ethological approach?
the study of animal behaviour
Who are some examples of ethological theorists?
Darwin (natural selection), Konrad Lorenz (imprinting), Jane Goodall (chimps vs. humans), John Bowlby (attachment to caregiver)
What is the humanistic approach?
the idea that people aim to be their best self
Who are some humanistic theorists?
Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow
What is Carl Roger's Theory?
Congruence vs. Incongruence, aim to be your best self
What is Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
Physiological, Safety, Love/Belonging, Esteem, Self Actualization
Who created the Bio-Ecological Approach?
What is the Bio-Ecological Approach?
The idea that environment influences development
What are the five levels of the Bio-Ecological Approach?
Microsystem, Mesosystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, Chronosystem
What are the contemporary psychology approaches?
Dynamic systems, evolutionary psych, neuroscience, positive psych
What is the eclectic approach?
a collection of all of the best parts of each of the theories