Flashcards in Regenerating Places Deck (50):
what are the limitations of the Clarke-fisher model?
-only applies to western countries.
-different countries are currently going through different stages of the model.
-may not be applicable to low-income countries.
how have settlement functions changed over time?
-they started as rural settlements with their economies based on agriculture.
-people moved out and into cities as working in factories is more profitable than working in agriculture.
-the emerging middle classes set up banks etc.
-tertiary sector jobs become more favourable, turning the city into a commercial city.
what are the reasons for places changing? (4)
-accessibility and connectedness.
-local and national planning.
how do physical factors lead to places changing?
-changing landscapes due to coastal erosion etc. threaten farming such as Happisburgh where 250m of land has been lost.
-climate change influences policy on agriculture and land use planning.
how does accessibility and connectedness lead to places changing?
-the development of the UK's rail networks has led to connections becoming faster.
-regional airports increase migration.
-2/3 of the UK now have access to fibre optic broadband.
-government provided £530m to extend broadband.
how does historical development lead to places changing?
-Totnes has deliberately introduced the Totnes pound to protect its heritage and culture.
-the Totnes pound has helped local businesses.
how does local and national planning lead to places changing?
-shortage of housing stock.
-building new villages and connections.
what are the different points in the index of multiple deprivation?
-abandoned and derelict land.
-quality of living environment
-barriers to housing and services
what are commuter villages?
rural settlements close to a large city that's home to people who work in the city.
what are sink estates?
area of council housing that scores low on the index of multiple deprivation.
what does the quality of life index measure?
it measures health, education, wealth, democracy and the environment.
A development indicator, which measures more than one variable eg the well-being index
The loss or dilution of a specific culture due to cultural diffusion
the mass closure of industries in regions traditionally associated with secondary industrial production, also features high unemployment levels.
Partly due to the global shift in production.
What are digital economy jobs?
Digital economy jobs are those in industries like mobile technology, ICT, software design and app development
What is the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD)?
An attempt to quantify deprivation in England.
It uses seven data domains which are weighed towards income and employment
What does ‘deprivation’ mean?
Deprivation means lacking things that are conspired normal by society, such as a job, decent income, warm secure housing or access to healthcare.
Multiple deprivation means lacking several of these
What forces influence places economically and socially both positively and negatively?
What does ‘identity’ refer to?
Identity refers to people’s feeling and perceptions l, and their shared beliefs, traditions and ways of life. It can create a sense of community and feeling part of a wider group of similar people.
How can place’s identities be affected?
People’s perception of the area in a positive or negative way
How are students, other young workers and migrants affected by place’s perceptions?
Young people may feel they want to leave a place with a poor image.
People are attracted to places with positive images.
There are likely to be more job opportunities in places with attractive images, because companies, like people, are attracted to them.
What are gated communities?
Wealthy residential areas that are fenced off and have security gates and entry systems. They are increasingly common in the UK.
What are sink estates?
Council housing estates that are the least desirable to live in and have the shortest waiting list for housing. They tend to house the lowest income, most in need residents.
What does post-production countryside refer to?
The post-production countryside refers to rural areas that no longer make most of their income from food production and other primary sector employment like fishing, quarrying and forestry.
What are accessible rural areas?
Accessible rural areas are those within 15-30 minutes driving time of cities. They are often home to commuters as well as farms.
What does diversification mean?
Diversification means farms, and rural areas generally, finding new income to replace farming as the main source of income, especially in leisure and tourism.
Why do rural areas in the post-production countryside have a tougher time rebranding compared to urban areas?
Their relative isolation
What needs to happen to ensure that visitors stay in an area for at least one night?
There needs to be a range of accommodation options from campsites to bothies, B&Bs and expensive hotels.
There needs to be plenty to do and see
What is cultural diffusion
Cultural diffusion is the spread of cultural beliefs and social activities from one group of people to another. Through cultural diffusion, horizons are broadened and people become more culturally rich.
Explain two reasons why different urban community groups may have
contrasting views about regeneration.
Some residents/age groups have long-standing social links to the place over generations (1) so be reluctant to see major regeneration if it results in change to their way of life/loss of
Recent migrants want their own homes/jobs(1) so positive about new investment/chance to set up their own business(1)
What is meant by a place
Geographical spaces shaped by individuals and communities over time
What is meant by regeneration
Long-term upgrading of existing places for urban residential, retail, industrial and commercial areas, as well as rural areas.
What are some controversial aspects still within the work place
-The gender gap has narrowed, yet still exists
-Zero-hour contracts, designed for casual piece work
mean no obligations by the employer which can lead
-Still a large blackmarket that relies largely on illegal
How can the differences in economic activity be measured
- Life expectancy
What is the Postcode lottery
This refers to the uneven distribution of local personal health and health services nationally, especially in mental health, early diagnosis of cancer and emergency care for the elderly
How can Health be used to measure economic activity
- Health may be measured by morbidity, the degree of ill
health someone experiences and longevity
- There is a direct link between place, deprivation and
- There are many fewer 'blue collar' or manual jobs
today and far less pollution
- However those working long hours in manual jobs
such as building and agriculture will have a raised risk
of poorer health
- Minority groups generally have a worse health than
the overall population and this is largely down to their
poorer socio economic position
How can life expectancy be used to measure economic activity
- Longevity varies substantially between county
- In Harrow, London, a man can expect to live 6 years
longer than a man in Glasgow
- Much of the North East and West have below average
- While life expectancy varies largely in these areas, the
socio economic position often also varies similarly
How can education levels be used to measure economic activity
-Education provision is unequal in the UK
-Ofsted regularly publishes data to show the
considerable regional variations in achievement
- Working class white children in poverty have a lower
educational achievement and are more likely to
How has the pay inequality margin developed
Just 5 families in the UK own 20% of the wealth
The UK now has the largest number of billionaires per capita than any other country
This increasing minority have become super rich due to the opportunities provided by large, transnational companies
What is the difference between Reinventor and Replicator cities
Reinventor cities have changed their economic base by successfully encouraging IT and digital media. Replicator cities replaced old dockyards etc. with call centres and distribution centres and are less sustainable.
What are the three main factors that determine how much someone will engage with a place
- length of residence
- Levels of deprivation
- Ethnicity of an area
Role of length of residence in determining how much someone will engage with a place
New migrants and students may feel less attached than long standing locals
Role of levels of deprivation in determining how much someone will engage with a place
Higher levels may be associated with anti-establishment views; those in temporary homes may feel 'less at home'
Role of Ethnicity in an area on determining how much someone will engage with a place
Non white British may differ in their views because of local antipathy
The marketing aspect of regeneration designed to attract business, residents and visitors
Making a place more attractive to invest and live
What factors effect the type of re generation policy
- Politics in local area
- Location (urban or rural)
- External factors e.g economic recessions
- Quality of bid to government or private investment
What is the role of planning laws
- About deciding how land is used
- helps create a place where people want to live and work
- When developers want to implement a scheme, they
submit a proposal to the local authority
- This decides wether it fits with the current local plan
- keeps harmony in communities
What is the economic argument for increased immigration
- increased GDP
- extra taxes
- Fill skill and work shortages
- Balance the population structure