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What is protectionism?

It involves policies to restrict trade


What does protectionism involve? (7)

Higher tariffs
Non- tariff barriers
Government subsidy
Distorted exchange rate- dirty floating
Weakened environmental law
Voluntary export restraint


Reasons for restricting trade? (5)

1. Infant industry argument
2. The senile industry argument
3. Need to diversify the economy
4. Protection against dumping
5. Environmental


How to the infant industry argument have a reason for protectionism?

Developing countries with new industries they would struggle against international competition. Eye need tariff protection whilst developing so they can be more competitive later on.


How does the senile industry argument have a reason for restricting trade?

If industries are declining, they may require investment to make them efficient. Protection could act as an incentive for firms to invest.


Why does the need to diversify the economy have a reason for restrictions on trade?

Developing countries rely on producing primary products, in which they have a comparative advantage in. However relying on agricultural goods has several disadvantages.
1. Prices can fluctuate due to environmental factors
2. If goods have a low income elasticity of demand. Then if economic growth rises, demand will a little


Protection against dumping is a reason to restrict trade how?

The EU sold a lot of its food surplus at very low prices. This caused issues for world farmers, because of a fall in their market price. Tariffs can protect against dumping


Why does the environment need restriction on trade.

Free trade can harm the environment. This is because countries with strict pollution controls may find consumers import goods from other countries that allow pollution higher.


What is the impact of protectionism policies on consumers? 1+2

Pro- may enable a more diverse and productive economy in the long term which improves e standard of living.

Con- pay a higher price for imported goods, lower standard of living
Con- Poor people lose out for paying more of their income to basic items


What are the impacts of protectionism on producers? 1+1

Pro- benefit from selling to the domestic market

Con- export firms with a comparative advantage lose out as countries place tariffs in retaliation


Impact of protectionism on the government 1+1

Pro- gain tariff revenue

Con- Not likely to be a significant part of the total tax revenue


What is International financial flows?

Official financial flows could take the form of aid or payments to bodies like the EU


What is short term capital flows?

Refers to the movement of financial savings one country to another. If interest rates are high in a country it would shift savings 'hot money flows'


What is long term foreign direct investment?

Occurs when a foreign firm invests in another country E.g a factory


Benefits of free trade? (6)

1. Reducing tariff barriers leads to trade creation
2. Increased exports
3. Economies of scale
4. Increased competition
5. Trade is an engine of growth
6. Make use of surplus raw materials


How does reducing tariff barriers lead to trade creation?

Removal of tariffs leads to a lower price for consumers. This in turn leads to an increase in overall economic welfare.


What is trade creation?

Trade creation occurs when consumption switches from high cost producers to low cost producers, enabling an increase in economic welfare.


How to free trade increase exports?

If a UK firm have a comparative advantage in something, then with lower tariffs, why can export more and create more jobs


How does free trade increase economies of scale?

If a country specialises in a good, they can benefit from economies of scale and lower average costs.


How does free trade increase competition?

With more trade, domestic firms will face greater competition from abroad a d have more incentive to cut costs and increase efficiency


How is trade an engine of growth?

World trade has increased by an average of 7% a year since 1945 - a big contributor to world economic growth


How does free trade make use of surplus in raw materials?

Countries with large reserves of raw materials need to trade to benefit from their natural wealth