Review 10 Flashcards Preview

Review > Review 10 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Review 10 Deck (36):
1

Smooth ER function

- Lipid synthesis
- Detox
- Transport of materials

2

Peroxisome function

Break down fatty acids via beta oxidation

3

Microtubules are related to _____ (7 things)

Kinesin & Dynein
Tubulin
Centrioles & Centrosomes
Cilia & Flagella

4

Intermediate filament function

Cell adhesion
Cytoskeleton integrity (anchor organelles)

5

Facultative anaerobes

Can survive w/ or w/o O2

6

Aerotolerant anaerobes

Can't use O2 for metabolism, but can survive in O2 environment

7

Conjugation = transfer from ____ to ______

F+ to F-

8

Connective tissue functions

Secrete substances to form extracellular matrix (collagen/elastin)
Form support structure for epithelial cells = stroma

9

Describe mitochondrial DNA (2 things)

Circular dsDNA
Self-replicating

10

Nucleolus

rRNA synthesis

11

Prokaryotic ribosomal subunits

Eukaryotic ribosomal subunits

Prokaryote: 30 + 50 = 70

Eukaryote: 40 + 60 = 80

12

What gene does the Y chromosome contain?

SRY gene => stimulates testes differentiation

13

Sperm are nourished by _______ ______

Sertoli cells

14

What do seminal vesicles do?

Nourish sperm w/ fructose
Produce alkaline fluid

15

Spermatogenesis

Spermatogonium
S stage => primary spermatocytes
Meiosis I => secondary spermatocytes
Meiosis II => spermatids
Maturation => spermatozoa = sperm (x4)

16

At birth, all oogonia have undergone replication and are considered ______ and arrested in _______

Primary oocyte - arrested in prophase I

17

Oogenesis

Oogonium => 1 haploid ovum and polar bodies

18

Ovulated egg each month = ______

Arrested in ________

Ovulated egg each month becomes secondary oocyte

Arrested in metaphase II

19

Effect of FSH in males
- Females

Effect of LH in males
- Females

FSH in males => stims Sertoli cells, triggers spermatogenesis
- Females => develop follicles

LH => causes interstitial cells to produce testosterone
- Females => causes ovulation

20

Follicular phase

GnRH => LH + FSH
=> Follicle development, estrogen release

21

Ovulation

Mature egg is released from ovary into fallopian tube

- Due to surge in LH from increased estrogen

22

Luteal phase

Ruptured follicle => corpus luteum
- Releases progesterone (maintains uterine lining)
- Highe estrogen => neg. feedback on LH, FSH, GnRH

23

When does spindle apparatus first interact w/ kinetochore fibers?

End of prophase

24

How does estrogen affect endometrium?

Causes growth of endometrial lining
Promotes vascularization and glandularization

25

Epididymis

Site of sperm maturation
=> sperm gain motility and are stored until ejaculation

26

During first trimester, corpus luteum is preserved by ______

hCG

27

Neural tube => _______

Neural crest cells => _______

Tube => CNS

Crest => PNS

28

First trimester

Second

Third

1st = Organogenesis

2nd = Growth

3rd = Growth, Ab transfer

29

Difference b/w morula and blastula

Morula => blastula => gastrula
- Blastula has more cells + hollow in middle (blastocoel)
- Morula = larger cells than blastula

30

Senescence

Biological aging

31

What does placenta produce and why?

Produces estrogen and progesterone to maintain endometrium

32

In paracrine signalling, molecules spread by ______

Diffusion

33

Pluripotent vs. Totipotent

Pluripotent = can differentiate into any of 3 germ layers

Totipotent = can differentiate into 3 germ layers + fetal tissue

34

Complete vs. Incomplete regeneration

Complete = tissue is regenerated to be identical to how it was previously (same function/structure)
- Ex. liver

Incomplete = not identical
- Ex. cardiac (scar forms)

35

Ductus arteriosus

Connects pulmonary artery to aorta (bypasses lungs)

36

Ductus venosus

Connects umbilical vein to inferior vena cava (bypasses liver)