Review 11 Flashcards Preview

Review > Review 11 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Review 11 Deck (40):
1

Sensory neurons are a/efferent and enter SC on ventral/dorsal side?

Motor neurons = a/e and enter on v/d side?

Sensory = afferent, dorsal

Moton = efferent, ventral

2

Nerve = collection of neurons in _____ nervous system and contain cell bodies in ______
- They carry ______ information

Tract = in ______ and cell bodies in _______
- Carry ______ info

Nerves = PNS, ganglia, sensory or motor

Tract = CNS, nuclei, one type of info only

3

Can peptide hormones pass through plasma membrane?

No - they are polar => need second-messenger extracellular receptor

- Peptide hormones end with -in or -ine (insulin, thyroxine)
- ADH = peptide hormone
- Steroid hormones end with -one, -ol, or -oid

4

Tropic hormones

Major functions in endocrine tissues

- Ex. FSH, LH, TSH, ACTH, GnRH, oxytocin, dopamine

5

Oxytocin = positive or negative feedback loop

Positive (unusual)

6

Examples of glucocorticoids

Cortison, cortisone

7

Somatostatin

Inhibits glucagon and insulin secretion (always inhibitory)

8

Pineal gland releases ______, which regulates ________ ______

Melatonin - circadian rhythms

9

Direct hormones

Function in non-endocrine tissues

- Ex. Prolactin, endorphins, growth hormone

10

What does parathyroid hormone (PTH) do?

Increases blood Ca2+ levels

11

GH is synthesized in _____ and secreted from ______

Growth hormone = synthesized and secreted from anterior pituitary

12

Inflammation of thyroid or iodine deficiency => what?

Hypothyroidism

- In newborns => cretinism

13

Stimulus for renin produciton

- Function of renin

Low blood pressure

- Converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I

14

Dopamine secretion prevents _____

Dopamine prevents prolactin release

15

What secretes erythropoeitin?

Kidney in response to low blood O2 levels

16

Androgen function and where are they secreted from

Function = male sexual differentiation
- Excess androgen in female => ambiguous genitalia

Made from adrenal cortex

17

Function of surfactant

Reduce surface tension => prevent collapse

18

Function of larynx?

Pharynx?

Larynx - Holds vocal cords

Pharynx - pathway for food and air

19

Path of air through respiratory tract

Nares
Nasal cavity
Pharynx
Larynx (Fair Larry)
Trachea
Bronchi
Alveoli

20

Lysozyme location and function

Location - nasal cavity, saliva, tears

Function - breaks down peptidoglycan => prevent infection from gram-positive bacteria

21

Agranulocytes

Granular leukocytes

A = Lymphocytes and monocytes

G = Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

22

Function of lymphatic system

Collect excess interstitial fluid and return it to circulatory system

23

What kind os cells present MHC I?

Healthy cells

- If downregulated => natural killer cells destroy cell

24

Where do B-cells mature and proliferate?

Spleen

25

Co-enzyme

Organic carrier molecule

- Hold onto something
- Ex. Acetyl-CoA

26

Co-factor

Directly participate in catalysis

27

Vitamins vs. Minerals

Vitamins = organic cofactors/coenzymes

Minerals = inorganic cofactors

28

Slope of L-B plot

Km/Vmax

29

Accessory organs of digestion

Salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder

30

What does enteropeptidase do?

Activates carboxypeptidases A/B and trypsin (which activates chymotrypsin)

31

Where is aminopeptidase?

Brush border

32

What does bile do?

Emulsifies fats

33

Where is sucrase located?

Brush border

34

Stomach = ____ pH

Duodenum = pH of _____

Stomach = low pH (2)

Duodenum = pH of 8.5

35

Bilirubin (what's it in and what does it come from)

Component of bile

Comes from breakdown of hemoglobin

36

Liver functions

Detox
Metabolic (glycogenesis/glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis)
Bile synthesis

37

Difference b/w nucleotide and nucleoside

Nucleotide has phosphate, nucleoside does not

38

DNA synthesis always proceeds from ____ prime to ____ prime

5' to 3'

39

Topoisomerases (ex. DNA gyrase)

Relax supercoiling that results from unwinding helix

40

Single-stranded binding proteins

Bind to separated strands to keep them from reannealing