Flashcards in Review 11 Deck (40):
Sensory neurons are a/efferent and enter SC on ventral/dorsal side?
Motor neurons = a/e and enter on v/d side?
Sensory = afferent, dorsal
Moton = efferent, ventral
Nerve = collection of neurons in _____ nervous system and contain cell bodies in ______
- They carry ______ information
Tract = in ______ and cell bodies in _______
- Carry ______ info
Nerves = PNS, ganglia, sensory or motor
Tract = CNS, nuclei, one type of info only
Can peptide hormones pass through plasma membrane?
No - they are polar => need second-messenger extracellular receptor
- Peptide hormones end with -in or -ine (insulin, thyroxine)
- ADH = peptide hormone
- Steroid hormones end with -one, -ol, or -oid
Major functions in endocrine tissues
- Ex. FSH, LH, TSH, ACTH, GnRH, oxytocin, dopamine
Oxytocin = positive or negative feedback loop
Examples of glucocorticoids
Inhibits glucagon and insulin secretion (always inhibitory)
Pineal gland releases ______, which regulates ________ ______
Melatonin - circadian rhythms
Function in non-endocrine tissues
- Ex. Prolactin, endorphins, growth hormone
What does parathyroid hormone (PTH) do?
Increases blood Ca2+ levels
GH is synthesized in _____ and secreted from ______
Growth hormone = synthesized and secreted from anterior pituitary
Inflammation of thyroid or iodine deficiency => what?
- In newborns => cretinism
Stimulus for renin produciton
- Function of renin
Low blood pressure
- Converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
Dopamine secretion prevents _____
Dopamine prevents prolactin release
What secretes erythropoeitin?
Kidney in response to low blood O2 levels
Androgen function and where are they secreted from
Function = male sexual differentiation
- Excess androgen in female => ambiguous genitalia
Made from adrenal cortex
Function of surfactant
Reduce surface tension => prevent collapse
Function of larynx?
Larynx - Holds vocal cords
Pharynx - pathway for food and air
Path of air through respiratory tract
Larynx (Fair Larry)
Lysozyme location and function
Location - nasal cavity, saliva, tears
Function - breaks down peptidoglycan => prevent infection from gram-positive bacteria
A = Lymphocytes and monocytes
G = Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
Function of lymphatic system
Collect excess interstitial fluid and return it to circulatory system
What kind os cells present MHC I?
- If downregulated => natural killer cells destroy cell
Where do B-cells mature and proliferate?
Organic carrier molecule
- Hold onto something
- Ex. Acetyl-CoA
Directly participate in catalysis
Vitamins vs. Minerals
Vitamins = organic cofactors/coenzymes
Minerals = inorganic cofactors
Slope of L-B plot
Accessory organs of digestion
Salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder
What does enteropeptidase do?
Activates carboxypeptidases A/B and trypsin (which activates chymotrypsin)
Where is aminopeptidase?
What does bile do?
Where is sucrase located?
Stomach = ____ pH
Duodenum = pH of _____
Stomach = low pH (2)
Duodenum = pH of 8.5
Bilirubin (what's it in and what does it come from)
Component of bile
Comes from breakdown of hemoglobin
Metabolic (glycogenesis/glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis)
Difference b/w nucleotide and nucleoside
Nucleotide has phosphate, nucleoside does not
DNA synthesis always proceeds from ____ prime to ____ prime
5' to 3'
Topoisomerases (ex. DNA gyrase)
Relax supercoiling that results from unwinding helix