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Flashcards in Review 12 Deck (34):
1

Difference b/w prokaryotes and eukaryotes in origins of replication

Prokaryotes have 1 ORI

Eukaryotes have multiple ORI

2

What happens to telomeres during replication?

Get shorter and shorter until can't get any shorter w/o taking off part of coding DNA => senescent cell

3

Telomerase

Allows cells to escape senescence by telomeres never shortening => cancer

4

Initiation codon

AUG

5

What do snRNA and snRNPs do?

Splice out introns from pre-mRNA

6

Single copy DNA vs. repetitive DNA

Single copy = genes, transcribed/translated, low mutation rate

Repetitive = no genes, not transcribed/translated, high mutation rate

7

Types of supercoils (which is easier to unwind)

Positive supercoil - left-handed, more frequent winding => difficult to unwind

Negative - right handed, easier to unwind

8

Different b/w Type I and Type II topoisomerases

Type I - breaks single strand => release energy

Type II - breaks double strand => requires ATP

9

Describe heterochromatin (eukaryotes or prokaryotes?

Tightly coiled - only eukaryotes

10

Proximal convoluted tubule

Reabsorption of glucose, AA, vitamins, salt, H2O

11

Descending limb of loop of Henle

Permeable to water but not salt => water is reabsorbed

12

Ascending limb of loop of Henle

Permeable to salt but not water => salt is reabsorbed

13

Distal convoluted tubule

Salt reabsorption
Aldosterone response
Waste excretion

14

Collecting duct

Response to aldosterone and ADH

15

Aldosterone

Increases salt reabsorption due to low BP => increase water reabsorption
=> Increased blood volume/pressure (no change in blood osmolarity)
=> Increased K+ secretion

16

Lowest => greatest solute concentration in kidney

Cortex

17

Histone acetylation => coiling or uncoiling?

HAT => uncoiling (euchromatin) => can be accessed by RNA Pol

- Take your hat off => access your head

18

DNA methylation

Gene silencing (more permanent than HDAC)

19

cDNA

mRNA converted back into DNA by RT

- No introns

20

Formula for amount of copies of DNA strand in PCR

2^n

21

Periosteum

Fibrous sheath that surrounds long bones

- Site of attachment to muscle tissues

22

Endochondral vs. intramembranous ossification

Endochondral ossification = replacement of cartilage with bone in long bones

Intramembranous ossification = skull replacement of mesenchyme w/ long bones

23

Gene mapping: what does 18% mean?

18 map units

- If highest % => those two genes are furthest from each other

24

Pulley with 2 strings = (half/double) force and (half/double) distance need to pull

Half force needed
Double distance need to pull

25

Negative torque direction

Rotate clockwise

26

As you get closer to something, perceived frequency ______

Increases (higher pitch) as something gets closer

27

Examples of transverse waves

Transverse = light, EM radiation

Longitudinal = sound, pressure

28

Relation b/w amplitude, energy, and intensity

Greater amplitude = greater energy
Intensity = E/at = Power/area
Greater amplitude = greater intensity

29

Harmonic for open ends

n/2 * lambda

30

Harmonic for closed ends

n(odd)/4 * lambda

31

When light moves to denser medium, it bends towards or away from normal?

Towards normal

32

Amino acids in eukaryotes = L or D?

Prokaryotes

L in eukaryotes

Can be D in prokaryotes

33

AA = S or R?

All are S except cysteine (R) and glycine (achiral)

34

Colligative properties

Physical property of solution dependent on concentration of dissolved particles (but not on their chemical identity)

- Vapor pressure depression
- Boiling point elevation
- Freezing point depression
- Osmotic pressure (but NOT diffusion)