Which fatty acid can humans synthesize?
Palmitic acid (16:0)
When is primary oocyte made (what life stage)?
What happens to oocyte at puberty?
What happens when fertilized?
- Primary oocyte = made in fetus (b/w fertilization and birth)
- Puberty = 1˙ oocyte goes through meiosis I => 2˙ oocyte
- Fertilization = 2˙ oocyte goes through meiosis II
Hemiacetal has or does not have repeated groups?
Acetal and ketal differ how?
Does not have repeated groups
- OH, OR, R, H
Acetal has R and H w/ 2 OR's
Ketal has 2 R's and 2 OR's
What type of muscle (s,c,s) is uninucleated?
Uninucleated = always smooth (sometimes cardiac)
Multinucleated = always skeletal (sometimes cardiac)
Chordate traits (mnemonic)
"Do Not Pinch People"
- Dorsal nerve cord
- Pharyngeal slits
- Postnatal tail
Each NADH => ____ ATP
- Total NADH => ____ ATP
Each FADH2 => _____ ATP
- Total FADH2 => ____ ATP
Total ATP/glucose = ____
Each NADH => 2.5 ATP
- Total NADH (10) => 25 ATP
Each FADH2 => 1.5 ATP
- Total FADH2 (2) => 3 ATP
Total ATP/glucose = 32 ATP
For total internal reflection to occur, light must move from high/low index of refraction to high/low index of refractions
TIR = high n to low n
- Otherwise will not occur
Rightward shift in oxy-hemoglobin curve = what type of muscle?
- Hot, hypercarbic, acidic, too much 2,3DPG
Addition of 1˙ or 2˙ amine to carbonyl
- Secondary - enamine
- Primary - imine
If light moves from lower to higher index of refraction => it will bend (towards/away) from normal
- From higher to lower n = toward/away from normal?
Lower to higher n = bend towards normal
- Higher to lower n = bend away from normal
- The higher you get, the more you bend to become normal
Fluid's velocity becomes faster in constricted tube
- Q = Av
- Pressure decreases as velocity increases (according to Bernoulli's)
Relate density to weight in air and weight in water
Density = (Wair) / (Wair - Wwater)
Transport mechanism for dietary triacylglycerols
- Transported via lymphatic system
Glycolysis => ___ NADH and ____ ATP
Pyruvate DH => ____ NADH
TCA => ____ NADH, _____ FADH2, ____ GTP per glucose
Glycolysis => 2 NADH and 2 ATP
Pyruvate DH => 2 NADH per glucose
TCA => 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 GTP per glucose
Causes of deviations from Hardy-Weinberg (mnemonic)
"Maggie May Does Not Smoke"
- Drift (genetic)
- Non-random mating
Perpetuation of inequalities through social institutions (ex. education, economy)
Electric field lines exit from _____ charges and enter _____ charges
Exit from positive charges
Enter negative charges
- J-L: Arousal => Emotion
- S-S: Arousal => Interpretation => Emotion
How many weeks into development does embryo => fetus?
Molar solubility relation to Ksp
s^2 = Ksp
1 x 10^5 Coulombs/mole
- 1 amp = 1 C/second
How many cm3 are in 1 m3?
1 m3 = 106 cm3
Hormones that increase blood glucose
- Thyroid hormones
Can NADH cross inner mitochondrial membrane?
No => requires shuttles
- Glycerol 3 phosphate shuttle
- Malate-aspartate shuttle
What part of nephron has highest solute concentration: cortex or medulla?
- Travelling from cortex to medulla = increasing solute concentration
Cytochrome c can carry _____ electrons
Cytochrome c can carry 1 electron
"Garlic Cloves Smell Exquisite"
- Gastrin => increased HCl
- CCK => gallbladder contraction
- Secretin => pancreatic bicarb secretion
- Enterogastrone => inhibits gastrin
When are estrogen levels lowest for a woman?
Products of pyruvate dehydrogenase
- Oxidizes pyruvate (removes H) => Acetyl CoA
- Forms NADH
- Regulated by phosphorylation in high ATP
Resistivity and temperature have a _____ relationship
- Increase T by factor of 2 => increase R by 2
Complex I => CoQ + 4 H+
Complex II => CoQ + no H+
CoQ => Complex III
Complex III => Cyt C + 4 H+
Cyt C => Complex IV
Complex IV => O2 + 2 H+
Which types of muscle are striated?
Striated = Skeletal + Cardiac
Nonstriated = Smooth
Hormones secreted by anterior pituitary (mnemonic)
- E = nothing
1 electron volt (eV) = ___ Joules
1 eV = 1.6 * 10-19
TCA energy forming steps
- Isocitrate DH => CO2, NADH #1 (rate-limiting step)
- Alpha-ketoglutarate DH => CO2, NADH #2
- Succinyl CoA synthetase => Succinyl CoA, GTP
- Malate DH => NADH #3
Calcitonin - calcium into bones
Parathyroid - voids bones of calcium
Menstrual cycle (mnemonic)
- Follicular phase
- Ovulatory phase
- Luteal phase
- Menstrual flow
- Proliferative phase
- Secretory phase
Heat capacity equation
- Heat capacity at constant volume
C = Q / ∆T
- At constant V or P of monatomic ideal gas, C only depends on number of moles
What steps in the cross-bridge cycle require ATP?
- Dissociation of myosin head from actin
- Conformational change that moves actin and myosin relative to one another
- Reuptake of Ca2+ into sarcoplasm (moves Ca against its gradient)
* Releasing, Movement, and Reuptake
Steps of lactic acid fermentation starting with glucose
- Glucose is oxidized to pyruvate (through glycolysis)
- Pyruvate is reduced by NADH (forming NAD+) to make pyruvate (2 pyruvate => 2 lactate)
Fundamental frequency of vibrating string
f = v / 2L
Range of visible light
400 (violet) - 750 (red) nm
Morphine leads to release of what NT?