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Flashcards in Review 14 Deck (47):
1

Which fatty acid can humans synthesize?

Palmitic acid (16:0)

2

When is primary oocyte made (what life stage)?

What happens to oocyte at puberty?

What happens when fertilized?

- Primary oocyte = made in fetus (b/w fertilization and birth)

- Puberty = 1˙ oocyte goes through meiosis I => 2˙ oocyte

- Fertilization = 2˙ oocyte goes through meiosis II

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3

Hemiacetal has or does not have repeated groups?

Acetal and ketal differ how?

Does not have repeated groups

- OH, OR, R, H

 

Acetal has R and H w/ 2 OR's

Ketal has 2 R's and 2 OR's

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4

What type of muscle (s,c,s) is uninucleated?

Multinucleated?

Uninucleated = always smooth (sometimes cardiac)

Multinucleated = always skeletal (sometimes cardiac)

5

Chordate traits (mnemonic)

"Do Not Pinch People"

- Dorsal nerve cord

- Notochord

- Pharyngeal slits

- Postnatal tail

6

Each NADH => ____ ATP

- Total NADH => ____ ATP

Each FADH2 => _____ ATP

- Total FADH2 => ____ ATP

Total ATP/glucose = ____

 

Each NADH => 2.5 ATP

- Total NADH (10) => 25 ATP

Each FADH2 => 1.5 ATP

- Total FADH2 (2) => 3 ATP

Total ATP/glucose = 32 ATP

7

For total internal reflection to occur, light must move from high/low index of refraction to high/low index of refractions

TIR = high n to low n

- Otherwise will not occur

8

Rightward shift in oxy-hemoglobin curve = what type of muscle?

Exercising muscle

- Hot, hypercarbic, acidic, too much 2,3DPG

9

Addition of 1˙ or 2˙ amine to carbonyl

"SEe PIe"

- Secondary - enamine

- Primary - imine

10

If light moves from lower to higher index of refraction => it will bend (towards/away) from normal

- From higher to lower n = toward/away from normal?

Lower to higher n = bend towards normal

- Higher to lower n = bend away from normal

- The higher you get, the more you bend to become normal

11

Venturi effect

Fluid's velocity becomes faster in constricted tube

- Q = Av

- Pressure decreases as velocity increases (according to Bernoulli's)

12

Relate density to weight in air and weight in water

Density = (Wair) / (Wair - Wwater)

13

Chylomicrons

Transport mechanism for dietary triacylglycerols

- Transported via lymphatic system

14

Glycolysis =>  ___ NADH and ____ ATP

Pyruvate DH => ____ NADH

TCA => ____ NADH, _____ FADH2, ____ GTP per glucose

 

Glycolysis =>  2 NADH and 2 ATP

Pyruvate DH => 2 NADH per glucose

TCA => 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 GTP per glucose

15

Causes of deviations from Hardy-Weinberg (mnemonic)

"Maggie May Does Not Smoke"

- Mutations

- Migrations

- Drift (genetic)

- Non-random mating

- Selection

16

Social reproduction

Perpetuation of inequalities through social institutions (ex. education, economy)

17

Electric field lines exit from _____ charges and enter _____ charges

Exit from positive charges

Enter negative charges

18

- James-Lange

- Schachter-Singer

- J-L: Arousal => Emotion

- S-S: Arousal => Interpretation => Emotion

19

How many weeks into development does embryo => fetus?

9 weeks

20

Molar solubility relation to Ksp

s^2 = Ksp

21

Faraday's Constant

1 x 10^5 Coulombs/mole

- 1 amp = 1 C/second

22

How many cm3 are in 1 m3?

1 m3 = 106 cm3

23

Hormones that increase blood glucose

"STENGGI"

- Somatotropin

- Thyroid hormones

- Epinephrine

- Norepinephrine

- Glucagon

- Glucocorticosteroids

- Immunoglobulins

24

Can NADH cross inner mitochondrial membrane?

No => requires shuttles

- Glycerol 3 phosphate shuttle

- Malate-aspartate shuttle

25

What part of nephron has highest solute concentration: cortex or medulla?

Medulla

- Travelling from cortex to medulla = increasing solute concentration

26

Cytochrome c can carry _____ electrons

Cytochrome c can carry 1 electron

27

Gastrointestinal hormones

"Garlic Cloves Smell Exquisite"

- Gastrin => increased HCl

- CCK => gallbladder contraction

- Secretin => pancreatic bicarb secretion

- Enterogastrone => inhibits gastrin

28

When are estrogen levels lowest for a woman?

During menstruation

29

Products of pyruvate dehydrogenase

- Regulation

- Oxidizes pyruvate (removes H) => Acetyl CoA

- Forms NADH

- Regulated by phosphorylation in high ATP

30

Resistivity and temperature have a _____ relationship

Linear

- Increase T by factor of 2 => increase R by 2

31

ETC

Complex I => CoQ + 4 H+

Complex II => CoQ + no H+

CoQ => Complex III

Complex III => Cyt C + 4 H+

Cyt C => Complex IV

Complex IV => O2 + 2 H+

 

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32

Which types of muscle are striated?

Nonstriated?

Striated = Skeletal + Cardiac

Nonstriated = Smooth

33

Hormones secreted by anterior pituitary (mnemonic)

FLAT PEG

- FSH

- LH

- ACTH

- TSH

- Prolactin

- E = nothing

- GH

34

1 electron volt (eV) = ___ Joules

1 eV = 1.6 * 10-19

35

TCA energy forming steps

- Isocitrate DH => CO2, NADH #1 (rate-limiting step)

- Alpha-ketoglutarate DH => CO2, NADH #2

- Succinyl CoA synthetase => Succinyl CoA, GTP

- Malate DH => NADH #3

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36

Calcium hormones

Calcitonin - calcium into bones

Parathyroid - voids bones of calcium

37

Menstrual cycle (mnemonic)

"FOLd MaPS"

- Follicular phase

- Ovulatory phase

- Luteal phase

 

- Menstrual flow

- Proliferative phase

- Secretory phase

38

Heat capacity equation

- Heat capacity at constant volume

C = Q / ∆T

- At constant V or P of monatomic ideal gas, C only depends on number of moles

39

What steps in the cross-bridge cycle require ATP?

- Dissociation of myosin head from actin

- Conformational change that moves actin and myosin relative to one another

- Reuptake of Ca2+ into sarcoplasm (moves Ca against its gradient)

* Releasing, Movement, and Reuptake

40

Steps of lactic acid fermentation starting with glucose

  1. Glucose is oxidized to pyruvate (through glycolysis)
  2. Pyruvate is reduced by NADH (forming NAD+) to make pyruvate (2 pyruvate => 2 lactate)

41

Fundamental frequency of vibrating string

f = v / 2L

42

Range of visible light

400 (violet) - 750 (red) nm

43

Morphine leads to release of what NT?

Endorphins

44

Cytosine structure

- NH2

- O

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45

Adenine structure

- NH2

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46

Guanine structure

- NH2

- O

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47

Thymine structure

- O

- O

- Methyl

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