Flashcards in Rural - KQ2 (social and economic issues with rural change) Deck (22):
What are the issues with the development/growth of rural areas?
- Urban sprawl
- Need for more housing
- Service development
- Population change
- Social change
How is urban sprawl an issue with the development/growth of rural areas?
- Some cities have greenbelts to prevent urban sprawl = areas without greenbelt are likely to expand into green areas
- No planning/legislation to prevent it
How is the need for more housing an issue with the development/growth of rural areas?
- Pressures for housing developments = between 1991 and 2001 in UK 460,000 new homes were needed
- More housing needed due to longer life expectancy and young people leaving home younger
- Urban areas are perceived as crowded, expensive, unsafe and polluted = people want to live in rural areas
How is service development an issue with the development/growth of rural areas?
- Unregulated businesses can often develop in rural areas such as scrap metal and caravan storage = detrimental and unsightly to environment
How is population change an issue with the development/growth of rural areas?
- Birth rate
- Age structure
How is social change an issue with the development/growth of rural areas?
- Decreased household size
- more single person households
What are the social issues experienced in rural areas?
- Lack of public transport
- Fewer young people can afford to live in rural areas = population becomes aged
- Some families are in isolation when they have no car and public transport becomes unreliable
- People in rural areas have to travel more for services or to bigger supermarkets where there are more products and cheaper
What are the economic issues experienced in rural areas?
- Fewer jobs in farming industry due to mechanisation
- Tourism has been declining (N Norfolk)
- Aged population = limited work force to carry out economic activity and run services (over time)
- Lack of affordable housing
- Lack of job opportunities = locals have to commute = dormitory village (wages are higher in the city too)
What are the socio-economic issues experienced in rural areas?
- Out-migration of young people
- Ageing population
- Population getting smaller = dropping below the threshold needed to support and maintain services
- Average earners cannot afford to live rurally so population consists of wealthy or older people who moved a long time ago
What are the key factors leading to the growth of rural areas?
- Transport improvements
- Increased standards of living
- Small households
- Dissatisfaction with urban areas
- Improving technology
- More demand for housing
How has transport improvements led to the growth of rural areas?
- More public transport = people in rural areas can access facilities/services easier
- Mobility change = increased car ownership and declining public transport
How has increased standards of living led to the growth of rural areas?
- Wealthier people have access to one or more cars = can live further from work and commute
- Smaller settlements in rural areas = people prefer quiet and community feel
How has small households led to the growth of rural areas?
- More houses needed = fewer families live together
- Population is expanding to rural areas = more space for people
How has dissatisfaction with urban areas led to the growth of rural areas?
- Attitudes towards urban areas changing = perceived as unsafe, polluted, busy and expensive
- Young families like more space and safer areas for children
How has improving technology led to the growth of rural areas?
- Better technology = people can work from home and can live further away from work
How has increased demand for housing led to the growth of rural areas?
- Fewer people live together = more housing needed
- Increased population (also longer life expectancy)
What are the key characters/problems with North Norfolk?
Issue = lack of economics activity meaning depopulation and decline
- N Norfolk stretches from Wells-next-the-Sea to Great Yarmouth, taking in the Norfolk Broads and an AONB
What are the economic issues with growth and development in North Norfolk?
- Less employment in agriculture due to mechanism
- Not much growth in other types of industries
- Tourism in decline since 1960s as people holiday abroad rather than in UK
- Limited range of employment opportunities
- Expensive housing and limited services = young working age people more away
What are the socio-economic issues with growth and development in North Norfolk?
- Out-migration of younger people
- Ageing population = high dependency ration
- Rural depopulation means numbers can drop below the threshold needed to support/maintain services = acts as push factor for area
- High 2nd home ownership = higher prices so local people must move
- 2nd homeowners do not contribute to local economy = don't use schools or health clinics and pay less tax
What are the key issues in South Cambridgeshire?
- Urban sprawl = pressure on greenbelt
- Need for more housing = population rise by 60% (1976-2016), 3600 new homes built in Cambourne
- Industrial growth and urban services = science park has 60 companies (5000 employees), pressure on schools/health clinics
- Transport and infrastructure = good (1 hour to London, Stansted 30mins away), 50% of workers live outside Cambridge (congestion)
What are the issues in Cottenham?
- House prices rise = population increase
- Little space to build and expand (greenbelt)
- Big supermarket chains stop local businesses (cheaper)
- Cottenham has become suburbanised = most people commute
- Increased demand for services (eg schools/health)
- Poor transport connections = not on guided busway or railway