Flashcards in Schizophrenia Deck (61)
What does DSM V stand for?
Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental disorders version 5
What are positive symptoms of Schizophrenia?
Symptoms the person didn't have before the illness such as delusions and hallucinations
What are negative symptoms of Schizophrenia?
Symptoms that have caused loss for the patient such as loss of emotion, speech and motivation.
How many stages does it take to diagnose Schizophrenia?
What is the first step in diagnosing someone with Schizophrenia?
Looking at symptoms: A person must show at least one of the following- delusions, hallucinations and disorganised speech.
What is a delusion and what are the three types?
A delusion is an incorrect belief
-Delusions of persecution (believing people are out to get you)
-Delusions of grandeur (believing you are someone great)
-Delusions of reference (believing everyday things such as a song playing on the radio has some significance)
What is a hallucination and what are the three types?
Sensing something that isn't there
-Auditory hallucinations (hearing something that isn't there)
-Visual hallucinations (seeing something that isn't there)
-Somatosensory hallucinations (feeling something that isn't there)
What are the two features of disorganised speech?
-Loose associations (jumping from topic to topic in conversation)
-Word salad (severe form of loose associations but make no sense at all)
What are the features of grossly disorganised and catatonic behaviour?
-Catatonia (maintaining a rigid posture for a long period of time)
-Stereotypy (engaging in repetitive and pointless movements
What are the two types of negative symptoms according to the DSM V?
-Lack of volition (withdrawal from social life)
-Flattened affect (no emotional expression)
What is the second stage of diagnosis of Schizophrenia?
Regarding areas affected what must the patient be underachieving in as a result of their illness?
What is the third stage of diagnosis of Schizophrenia?
Duration - the patient must have shown continuous signs of disturbance for at least 6 months and a month of symptoms.
What is the fourth stage of diagnosis of Schizophrenia?
Rule out other disorders first as there are similar psychotic disorders such as schizoaffective disorder and mood disorder with psychotic features.
What is the fifth stage of diagnosis of Schizophrenia?
Rule out known causes
A person won't be diagnosed if there has been known drug use or previous medical condition to explain symptoms
After a psychiatrist has diagnosed a person with Schizophrenia how many types can they be placed into according to their most dominant symptom?
Paranoid, Disorganised, Catatonic, Undifferentiated and Residual
What describes a person with PARANOID schizophrenia?
-Delusions and auditory hallucinations
What describes a person with DISORGANISED schizophrenia?
-Disorganised speech and behaviour
What describes a person with CATATONIC schizophrenia?
-Motor disturbances (jerking movements or rigid posture)
What describes a person with UNDIFFERENTIATED schizophrenia?
Where the symptoms don't fit into paranoid, disorganised and catatonic types
What describes a person with RESIDUAL schizophrenia?
Continuing evidence of the disorder but none of the active symptoms fit into the other types
What is reliability when linked to schizophrenia?
How consistent the diagnosis over time and between doctors
What are two issues surrounding the classification and diagnosis of schizophrenia?
Reliability and validity
What 3 factors did Kleitman (1961) identify which could make the diagnosis of schizophrenia unreliable?
1. Differences between clinicians - symptoms could be interpreted differently by different psychiatrists, difference in culture and behaviour. Cause a disagreement in diagnosis
2. Differences between patients - No two cases are the same, a psychiatrist may misinterpret behaviour of a patient who is of a different culture. Also patients display different symptoms on different days so could lead to different diagnoses
3. Difference in classification systems to diagnose a patient - Using different systems means low reliability as they may end up giving different diagnoses as systems describe different clinical characteristics.
What was Jones and Gray's (1986) research that supports there is low reliability in the diagnosis of schizophrenia?
Noted that a large proportion of afro-Caribbean descents in western culture were being diagnosed with schizophrenia as there 'symptoms' are being misinterpreted by psychiatrists. Misinterpret the way they speak with disorganised speech and it is normal for them to be visited by the deceased - this could be seen as a hallucination. Supports the idea that cultural background of the psychiatrist can lower the reliability of diagnosis.
What was Stephens et al's (1982) study that supports there is low reliability in the diagnosis of schizophrenia?
Investigated the inter-rater reliability of nine different classification systems - doctors given the files of 283 patients and asked to use the different classification systems to diagnose them. Found that the agreement between psychiatrists was poor and the same diagnosis was not given.
What was Motjabi and Nicholson's (1995) research that supports there is low reliability in the diagnosis of schizophrenia?
Investigated how the subjectiveness of psychiatrists might lead to differences in diagnosis.
Gave 50 psychiatrists examples of delusions and had to sort them into bizarre and non bizarre. They agreed only on average 40% of the time. Supports idea that subjectiveness can cause low reliablility
What was Copeland et al's study (1971) that supports there is low reliability in the diagnosis of schizophrenia?
Investigated how culture of the psychiatrist might lead to a difference in diagnosis. 134 US and 194 UK psychiatrists were given a description of a patient and asked to diagnose them using the same classification system. 69% of the the US psychs diagnosed schizophrenia compared to 2% of UK psychs.
What was Harvey et al's study (2012) that supports there is reliability in the diagnosis of schizophrenia?
Carried out a meta analysis on the reliability to diagnose schizophrenia. Found that the older classification systems led to unreliable diagnoses however since the publication of the DSM IV reliability in diagnosis has increased. Shows that the mental health community is improving in reliability of diagnosis.