Flashcards in SG101 Deck (115)
What is an "essential" nutrient?
One that is not synthesized in the body, or produced in insufficient amounts.
What are the 6 classes of nutrients?
3 macronutrients for energy supply: carbs, proteins, lipids
3 micronutrients for regulating body processes: vitamins, minerals, water
The amount of energy needed to maintain essential physiologic functions when a person is at complete rest.
Amount of heat required to raise the temp of 1 gram of H2O, 1 degree Celsius.
Small calorie (not used in nutrition measurement)
Amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of H2O, 15-16 degrees Celsius.
Large calorie (Kcal) - used in nutrition
Amount of energy required to maintain basic body function. 1cal/kg/hr. for men. 0.9cal/kg/hr. for women.
Resting Energy Expenditure (REE)
Measure of the degree of protein anabolism and catabolism. Net result of intake and loss of nitrogen.
How much water is required to process a calorie?
Some recommend 1/2 cup/lb of body weight per day
What are the 4 ways the body loses water?
Urine, recipes, perspiration, respiration
How many calories per gram of carbohydrate?
4cal per gram
What are carbohydrates composed of?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
How many calories per gram in fats?
9 calories per gram
List 4 fat soluble vitamins.
A, D, E, K
How many calories per gram in protein?
4 calories per gram
What are proteins composed of?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
What are "complete" proteins?
Contain all 9 essential amino acids
List the 9 essential amino acids
What are the non-essential amino acids?
What does pepsin do?
Enzyme that breaks down proteins.
How do vitamins assist in nutrition?
Function as coenzymes
How is carotene related to vitamin A?
Beta-Carotine is a precursor (pro-vitamin) to vitamin A