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Flashcards in SG101 Deck (115)
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1

What is an "essential" nutrient?

One that is not synthesized in the body, or produced in insufficient amounts.

2

What are the 6 classes of nutrients?

3 macronutrients for energy supply: carbs, proteins, lipids

3 micronutrients for regulating body processes: vitamins, minerals, water

3

Mastication

Chewing

4

Deglutition

Swallowing

5

The amount of energy needed to maintain essential physiologic functions when a person is at complete rest.

Basal metabolism

6

Amount of heat required to raise the temp of 1 gram of H2O, 1 degree Celsius.

Small calorie (not used in nutrition measurement)

7

Amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of H2O, 15-16 degrees Celsius.

Large calorie (Kcal) - used in nutrition

8

Amount of energy required to maintain basic body function. 1cal/kg/hr. for men. 0.9cal/kg/hr. for women.

Resting Energy Expenditure (REE)

9

Normal BMI

20-25

10

Measure of the degree of protein anabolism and catabolism. Net result of intake and loss of nitrogen.

Nitrogen balance

11

How much water is required to process a calorie?

1:1

Some recommend 1/2 cup/lb of body weight per day

12

What are the 4 ways the body loses water?

Urine, recipes, perspiration, respiration

13

How many calories per gram of carbohydrate?

4cal per gram

14

What are carbohydrates composed of?

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

15

Salivary amylase

Ptyalin

16

How many calories per gram in fats?

9 calories per gram

17

List 4 fat soluble vitamins.

A, D, E, K

18

How many calories per gram in protein?

4 calories per gram

19

What are proteins composed of?

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen

20

What are "complete" proteins?

Contain all 9 essential amino acids

21

List the 9 essential amino acids

Threonine
Leucine
Isoleucine
Valine
Lysine
Methionine
Phenylalanine
Tryptophan
Histidine

22

What are the non-essential amino acids?

Glycine
Alanine
Aspartic acid
Glutamic acid
Praline
Hydroxyproline
Cystine
Tyrosine
Serine

23

What does pepsin do?

Enzyme that breaks down proteins.

24

How do vitamins assist in nutrition?

Function as coenzymes
Enhance absorption

25

Retinol

Vitamin A

26

Cholecalciferol

Vitamin D

27

Tocopherol

Vitamin E

28

Menadione

Vitamin K

29

How is carotene related to vitamin A?

Beta-Carotine is a precursor (pro-vitamin) to vitamin A

30

Name 2 foods high in vitamin A.

Dairy, Liver