Study Guide 39 & 40 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Study Guide 39 & 40 Deck (42):
1

The correct order of small intestine divisions, starting proximal to the stomach, is:

a. ileum, duodenum, jejunum.
b. duodenum, ileum, jejunum.
c. duodenum, jejunum, ileum.
d. ileum, jejunum, duodenum.

c. duodenum, jejunum, ileum.

2

Beginning with the largest structures, which of the following is a correct description of the small intestine’s adaptation for absorption?

a. villi, microvilli, plicae
b. plicae, villi, microvilli
c. microvilli, villi, plicae
d. microvilli, plicae, villi

b. plicae, villi, microvilli

3

The terminal inch of the rectum is called the:

a. anal canal
b. fistula
c. anus
d. sigmoid

a. anal canal

4

The lesser omentum attaches the:

a. transverse colon to the posterior abdominal wall.
b. liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach.
c. ileum and jejunum to the posterior abdominal wall.
d. greater omentum to the posterior abdominal wall.

b. liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach.

5

The anatomic units of the liver are called:

a. lobes.
b. lobules.
c. sinusoids.
d. none of the above.

b. lobules.

6

Blood flows to hepatic lobules via branches of the:

a. hepatic artery.
b. hepatic portal vein.
c. hepatic vein.
d. both a and b.

d. both a and b.

7

A merger of the hepatic duct and cystic duct form the:

a. common hepatic duct.
b. common bile duct.
c. right hepatic duct.
d. left hepatic duct.

b. common bile duct.

8

Bile salts aid in the absorption of:

a. fat.
b. carbohydrates.
c. proteins.
d. waste products.

a. fat.

9

Within the sinusoids of the liver are many cells that remove bacteria, worn red blood cells, and other products from the bloodstream. These cells are known as:

a. alpha cells.
b. hepatic leukocells.
c. stellate macrophages.
d. haustra.

c. stellate macrophages.

10

Which one is not part of the small intestine?

a. jejunum
b. ileum
c. cecum
d. duodenum

c. cecum

11

The union of the cystic duct and the __________ forms the common bile duct.

a. hepatic duct
b. major duodenal papilla
c. minor duodenal papilla
d. pancreatic duct

a. hepatic duct

12

Each villus in the intestine contains a lymphatic vessel or _____ that serves to absorb lipid or fat materials from the chyme.

a. plica
b. lacteal
c. villa
d. microvilli

b. lacteal

13

Cholelithiasis is the term used to describe:

a. biliary colic.
b. jaundice.
c. portal hypertension.
d. gallstones.

d. gallstones.

14

The largest gland in the body is the:

a. pituitary
b. thyroid
c. liver
d. thymus

c. liver

15

Which of the following describes the pharyngeal stage of deglutition?

a. mouth to oropharynx
b. oropharynx to esophagus c. esophagus to stomach
d. none of the above

b. oropharynx to esophagus

16

Which step of deglutition is under voluntary control?

a. oral
b. pharyngeal
c. esophageal
d. all of the above

a. oral

17

The final product of carbohydrate digestion is a:

a. disaccharide.
b. monosaccharide.
c. polysaccharide.
d. fatty acid.

b. monosaccharide.

18

Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of proteins are:

a. proteases.
b. amylases.
c. lactases.
d. lipases.

a. proteases.

19

A micelle is:

a. a disaccharide attached to the brush border of the small intestine.
b. a tiny sphere of lipid and water.
c. a thick, milky material comprised of food and digestive enzymes.
d. synonymous with bolus.

b. a tiny sphere of lipid and water.

20

Which of the following is not true concerning the gastric emptying of water?

a. Large volumes of water leave the stomach more rapidly than small volumes.
b. Warm fluids empty more quickly than cool fluids.
c. High-solute concentration fluids empty more slowly than dilute concentrations.
d. All of the above are true.

b. Warm fluids empty more quickly than cool fluids.

21

The process of fat emulsification consists of:

a. chemically breaking down fat molecules.
b. absorption of fats.
c. breaking down fats into small droplets.
d. the secretion of digestive juices for fat digestion.

c. breaking down fats into small droplets.

22

The principal enzyme of saliva is:

a. protease.
b. amylase.
c. lipase.
d. salivase.

b. amylase.

23

Which of the following is true?

a. Saliva contains large amounts of lipase.
b. Pepsinogen is converted into pepsin by hydrochloric acid.
c. Chief cells secrete pepsin. d. Zymogenic cells produce intrinsic factor.

b. Pepsinogen is converted into pepsin by hydrochloric acid.

24

Which of the following is present in bile?

a. lecithin
b. gastrin
c. bile salts
d. both a and c

d. both a and c

25

The hormone that stimulates the gallbladder to release bile is:

a. enterogastrone.
b. insulin.
c. gastrin.
d. cholecystokinin.

d. cholecystokinin.

26

Fats are absorbed primarily into which of the following structures?

a. blood in intestinal capillaries
b. lymph in intestinal lacteals
c. villi in large intestine
d. none of the above

b. lymph in intestinal lacteals

27

Movement of lower colon and rectum contents at a rate slower than normal can cause:

a. defecation.
b. constipation.
c. diarrhea.
d. both b and c.

b. constipation.

28

Which blood vessel carries absorbed nutrients from the GI tract to the liver?

a. hepatic artery
b. hepatic vein
c. portal vein
d. inferior vena cava

c. portal vein

29

During the process of digestion, stored bile is poured into the duodenum by which of the following?

a. gallbladder
b. liver
c. pancreas
d. spleen

a. gallbladder

30

The portion of the alimentary canal that mixes food with gastric juice and breaks it down into a mixture called chyme is the:

a. gallbladder.
b. small intestine.
c. stomach.
d. large intestine.

c. stomach.

31

Polysaccharides are hydrolyzed to disaccharides by enzymes known as:

a. amylases.
b. peptides.
c. micelles.
d. colipases.

a. amylases.

32

Which of the following is not a stage of deglutition?

a. oral
b. pharyngeal
c. esophageal
d. gastric

d. gastric

33

Protein digestion begins in the:

a. esophagus.
b. small intestine.
c. stomach.
d. large intestine.

c. stomach.

34

The enzyme pepsin is concerned primarily with the digestion of which of the following?

a. sugars
b. starches
c. proteins
d. fats

c. proteins

35

The enzyme amylase converts which of the following?

a. starches to sugars
b. sugars to starches c. proteins to amino acids
d. fatty acids and glycerols to fats

a. starches to sugars

36

Which of the following substances does not contain any enzymes?

a. saliva
b. bile
c. gastric juice
d. intestinal juice

b. bile

37

Which of the following is a simple sugar?

a. maltose
b. sucrose
c. lactose
d. glucose

d. glucose

38

Fats are broken down into:

a. amino acids.
b. simple sugars.
c. fatty acids.
d. disaccharides.

c. fatty acids.

39

Which hormone decreases peristalsis and slows the passage of food from the stomach to the duodenum?

a. CCK
b. GIP
c. secretin
d. gastrin

b. GIP

40

The union of the cystic duct and hepatic duct form the:

a. common bile duct.
b. major duodenal papilla.
c. minor duodenal papilla.
d. pancreatic duct.

a. common bile duct.

41

The process of swallowing is known as:

a. mastication.
b. segmentation.
c. peristalsis.
d. deglutition.

d. deglutition.

42

Peristalsis begins in the:

a. mouth.
b. pharynx.
c. esophagus.
d. stomach.

c. esophagus.