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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (48):
1

Behavior change is considered a

Technology or a tool

2

Is it ethical to change someone's behavior without their consent?

No

3

How can we teach responsibility if we reward people for everything they do?

-encourage the new behavior and reward it
-reinforce and reward for effort, not always the end goal

4

What gives you the right to manipulate behavior?

-manipulation can be good and bad
-suggests you're trying to read into someone's intention

5

How behavior change can sometimes be bad

-behavioral techniques can be learned and misused by clients and others
-behavioral interventions ignore the real cause of the problem

6

Characteristics of a behavioral approach

1. Involves an individual's actions not labels (hyperactive-doesn't stay in their seat, talks out of turn-- how frequently they do these things)
2. Involves measurable dimensions
-frequency
-duration
-intensity
-latency (how much time passes before kid gets back in seat after told to do so.
3. Can be observed, described, and recorded
-how to define the behavior, observe it, record it---duration recording or number of times it occurs
4. Has an impact on the environment (physical or social)
5. Behavior is lawful (turned on the light, the light turned on) (law of effect- Thorndike)
6. May be overt or covert (private events -anxiety) anxiety is treated well by behavioral therapy as long as the person actually lets people know it is going on
-you can use scales to measure

7

People to know

Watson and Pavlov- classical and respondent conditioning
Thorndike & skinner (thought behaviorism could create world peace)- operant

8

Target behavior

The behavior to be modified

9

Behavioral excess

An undesirable target behavior that a person seeks to decrease in frequency, duration, or intensity.

10

Behavioral deficit

A desirable target behavior that a person seeks to increase in frequency, duration, or intensity

11

Behaviorism

The philosophy of the science of behavior. Behaviorism's core tenets are that behavior is lawful and controlled by environmental events occurring in close temporal relation to the behavior

12

Current state of affairs/events

What is going right now for you. (ABC's)
Antecedents
Behavior
Consequences

13

Precise definitions

No labels. Hyperactive? What kind of behavior does that encompass?

14

Ability for implementation by anyone

Possible with sufficient training, guidance) (even self management)

15

Measurement

Have to be able to measure behavior

16

Ahistorical approach to assessment

How long a maladaptive behavior has occurred-- possibly identify how it was formed. When it started, how long, frequency.

17

More characteristics of a behavioral approach

-get beneath labels, focus on behavior
-assess topographical features (elevation, percents of incline) (gives a great description of what is going on)
•frequency (rate)
•duration (time)
•intensity (rating)
•stimulus (control setting)

18

Topography: frequency

-number of instances a behavior occurs in a given period of time
-rate (how many times you put a plastic bottle into a recycling bin

19

Topography: duration

-how long a behavior lasts
-relative duration
•length of time a behavior occurs within some period
Increase duration of sleep

20

Topography: intensity

Force of a response
Use various devices to measure force
Pitching (baseball)
strength

21

Topography: stimulus control

-behavior occurs in the presence of certain stimuli and not others
-high correlation between occurrence of stimuli and response

22

Topography: latency

-amount of time between stimulus and response
•how long before you respond
•ex. An alarm clock
How long it takes for students to respond

23

Topography: quality

How well an activity is performed arbitrary designation of one or more of characteristics of behavior

24

Phases of behavioral process

-screening and general disposition
-baseline
•complete a functional analysis (try to figure out what is maintaining that behavior)

Target behavior is the one you want to change
•select an accountability design
-treatment
-generalization and maintenance
-follow up

25

Behavioral assessment

-collection and analysis of data to:
•identify and describe target behavior
•identify causes (maintaining events)
•select treatment strategy
•evaluate treatment outcome

26

Screening or intake phase

-basic info
-app. Agency
-inform about rules
-screen for crisis
-which behavior to focus on

27

Baseline phase

-level of target behavior prior to intervention
Why? To gauge how effective the treatment what maintains the behavior, what happens before and after

28

Treatment phase

-design program
•education- training or teaching program
•clinical- intervention strategy or therapy program
-apply program
-measure behavior

29

Follow up phase

-are improvements maintained?
-focus on persistence of behavioral change

30

Graphing methods

1) horizontal axis (time-day)
2) vertical axis (y) (what you're measuring)
3) phase change lines (use dash or solid line)
(AB AB design)
4) phase/ condition labels
5) data points
6) data path
7) legend (or title)

31

Frequency (conventional) graph

•each data point represents total or average number of instances of behavior in that time period
•shows improvement across days
•is the treatment successful

32

Cumulative graph (represented like stairs, does not decrease)

•each data point represents a total number of responses up to that point
•if within a day, helps identity maintaining events
•helps in development of a treatment program

33

Accuracy of observations

-Sources of error
•response definition too vague or unclear
•observational situation makes observations different
•poor training of observer
•poorly designed data sheets
-interobsever reliability (IOR) (80% to use)
•do ratings of different observers agree?

34

Why measure behavior?

1) communication (who you will communicate it to---parents, client, child)
2) precision (how much exactly)
3) efficiency
4) objectivity (what defitnion of behavior is)
5) reinforcement (only thing that changes may be that you're recording the behavior$
6) feedback (hopefully it is possible)

35

Requirements for measurement

1) objectivity (agree on behavior and definition) what is it, how often it occurs, when and where it occurs)
2) reliability (at least 2 people have to agree with at least 80% reliability)
3) efficiency
4) validity (valid if it actually changes)

36

Reactivity

When your behavior changes because you're measuring it

37

Common measurement materials

Hardware
-clip board, pencil, timers, counters, lap top, data sheets
-phone apps
Data sheets
-raw data, summary of data
(She wants to see our raw measurement strategies)
Raw data sheets
-who to observe
-who is responsible
-when, how long, setting (where)
-what (definition of behavior)

38

Recording strategies

1. Direct measurement of permanent products
-recycling bottles- record number of bottles in bin
Wouldn't know what time of days what occurred around that behavior (what maintained that behavior)

39

Variability

Day to day fluctuation in behavioral rate

40

Trend

Rate changes in a given direction occurring gradually over time
(Plastic bottles, cigarette butts)

41

Advantages and disadvantages of direct measurement of permanent products

Adv:
1) accuracy
2) efficient
3) important behavior

Disadvantage:
1) lack info on:
a. Patterns
b. Maintaining events
2) easily fabricated

42

Event recording

Enter the start and stop of time of the sessions

43

Advantages and disadvantages

Adv:
1) efficient for low rate behavior
2) important behavior
3) can delineate maintaining behaviors or events

Disadvantages:
Not efficient (or reliable) for high rate behavior
Unless you add a temporal component to the behavioral definition

44

Interval recording

Intervals-- at least 10---better sample of the behavior
Partial interval or whole interval recording
Place a + in any box in which behavior occurs

45

Time sampling

Recorded if observed at the end of an interval

46

Advantages and disadvantages of time sampling

Adv:
Very efficient
Provides a nice estimate of high rate or long duration behavior

Disadvantages:
Much behavior goes uncounted avoid use with low frequency or short duration behavior
Interval lengths do not always have to be equal as long as the recording time is not cued by the behavior itself

47

Duration recording

Time spent doing the behavior
Start and stop
Total time of tantrums
Use percentage
More helpful to know the percentage of time
One of the ways we tell if behavior is going to change is by charting

48

Recording maintaining events

Behaviors: gross motor, object noise, disturbing others things, aggression
Antecedents: therapist leaves, another child touches object, another child makes comment or touch