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Flashcards in The Development of Germany 1919-1991 Deck (250):
1

Key Question 1: Weimar Germany

What were the main rules of the Weimar Republic?

Political authority comes from the people.

The president is elected by the German people.

Article 48.

2

Key Question 1: Weimar Germany

What was Article 48?

If public safety is endangered, the President can do whatever he needs to do to make things better (including pass laws without a vote).

3

Key Question 1: Weimar Germany

When was the Treaty of Versailles decided?

1919.

4

Key Question 1: Weimar Germany

What were the three categories of the Treaty of Versailles?

Economic, Military, Land.

5

Key Question 1: Weimar Germany

What were the Economic terms of the Treaty of Versailles?

Reparations of $6.6 billion.

Coal, sheep, and cattle given to France.

6

Key Question 1: Weimar Germany

What were the Military terms of the Treaty of Versailles?

The army could have no more than 100,000 men.

No aircrafts or tanks.

Only small naval ships but no submarines.

7

Key Question 1: Weimar Germany

What were the Land terms of the Treaty of Versailles?

Alsace-Lorraine given back to France.

All colonies to be given to the Allies.

No union with Austria.

8

Key Question 1: Weimar Germany

What did the German people call the Weimar Republic?

The ‘November Criminals’.

9

Key Question 1: Weimar Germany

What was the 1919 Spartacist Uprising?

Karl Leibknecht, Rosa Luxemburg, and the Communist party started a revolution, but the government reacted quickly and arrested and killed those involved.

10

Key Question 1: Weimar Germany

What was the 1920 Kapp Putsch?

Wolfgang Kapp, General Luttwitz, and a group of Freikorps stormed Berlin and said that a new government was being established and Kapp was the Chancellor. Workers in Berlin went on strike and Kapp was forced to stand down.

11

Key Question 1: Weimar Germany

What was the 1923 Munich Putsch?

Adolf Hitler and 600 stormtroopers interrupted a meeting of the Bavarian Prime Minister in Munich and said he was taking over, but the army and police heard about this, interrupted his plan, and Hitler was arrested and sent to prison.

12

Key Question 1: Weimar Germany

What is hyperinflation?

When there is too much money too quickly and it loses its value.

13

Key Question 1: Weimar Germany

Who was Gustav Stresemann?

He was Chancellor of Germany for a brief period in 1923, and then was Germany’s Foreign Minister from 1923 to 1929.

14

Key Question 1: Weimar Germany

What did Gustav Stresemann do?

Introduced the Rentenmark in 1923 to solve hyperinflation.

Agreed to the Dawes Plan with the USA in 1923 so they would lend Germany 800 million gold marks.

Entered Germany into the League of Nations, working peacefully with other countries rather than fight.

Agreed to the Young Plan in 1929 to reduce reparation costs.

15

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

What did NSDAP stand for and what was its nickname?

The National Socialist German Workers’ Party, also known as the Nazi Party.

16

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

When was the Nazi Party started and who by?

1919 by Anton Drexler.

17

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

How did Hitler join the Nazi Party?

He discovered it while working as a spy for the Weimar Government, and joined in 1920.

18

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

When was Hitler made leader of the Nazi Party?

1921.

19

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

What was the SA?

The Nazi’s private army, consisting of trained Freikorps and led by Ernst Rohm.

20

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

How many seats did the Nazi Party have in the Reichstag in 1924?

19.

21

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

Who was Joseph Goebells?

He was put in charge of propaganda for the Nazi Party in 1926.

22

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

How many seats did the Nazi Party have in the Reichstag in 1928?

17.

23

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

What happened in 1930 to gain the Nazi Party more support?

The Communist Party was gaining power and more people want to vote for the Nazi Party to keep the Communists out.

24

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

How many seats did the Nazi Party have in the Reichstag in 1930.

107.

25

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

Why do people lose trust in the government in 1930?

President Hindenburg allows the Chancellor to use Article 48.

26

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

What was Hitler doing in 1932 to gain the Nazi Party more support?

He spoke at 4-5 mass rallies a day, to spread the word of the Nazis.

27

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

How many seats did the Nazi Party have in the Reichstag in 1932.

230.

28

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

What was the Nazi’s promise?

To make Germany great again.

29

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

What was Hitler named in 1933?

Time Magazine’s ‘Man of the Year’.

30

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

What happened in July 1932?

The Nazi Party won 37.5% of the votes and were the biggest party in the Reichstag.

31

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

Who did President Hindenburg make Chancellor instead of Hitler?

Franz von Papen.

32

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

Who was von Papen replaced by when the members of the Reichstag didn’t like him?

Kurt von Schleicher.

33

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

What deal did von Papen make with Hitler?

If Hitler was Chancellor, von Papen would be Vice-Chancellor.

34

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

When did Hitler become Chancellor of Germany?

30 January 1933.

35

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

What three problems did Hitler face as Chancellor?

Out of 12 ministers, only 2 were Nazis.

Less than half of the seats in the Reichstag were Nazis.

Hindenburg had control over Hitler and could sack him at any time.

36

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

When was the Reichstag Fire?

February 1933.

37

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

What was the Reichstag Fire?

A fire broke out in the Reichstag building and a Dutch Communist was found nearby. Hitler blamed the Communist and gets the party banned. That got their biggest opposition out of the way.

38

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

When was the Enabling Act?

March 1933.

39

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

What was the Enabling Act?

Hitler passed Article 48 which meant he could make laws and decisions without the approval of the Reichstag for 4 years. Hitler used this power to remove civil rights and ban all other political parties, making the Nazi Party the only party in Germany.

40

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

When was the Night of the Long Knives?

June 1934.

41

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

What was the Night of the Long Knives?

Hitler launches an attack on the SA, Hitler’s private army, who had become too powerful under Ernst Rohm and could threaten his leadership. Hundreds were murdered, including Rohm, and more taken to concentration camps.

42

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

When did President Hindenburg die?

August 1934.

43

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

What was the name of the combined role of the President and Chancellor?

Führer.

44

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

What does Gleichaltung mean?

A term that means that the Nazis had control of every part of life.

45

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

What are some examples of Gleichaltung?

Trade unions were banned.

Workers had to be a part of the Nazi union.

Young boys were forced to join the Hitler Youth.

No local governments.

46

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

What was the SS?

Hitler’s private bodyguards that became his police, led by Heinrich Himmler. They dealt with the opposition to the Nazis in a violent and brutal way.

47

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

What was the Gestapo?

Part of the SS under Heinrich Himmler, but led by Reinhard Heydrich. They had the power to arrest people without trial. They put political opponents and Jews in concentration camps.

48

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

How did the Nazis control the Legal System?

The People’s Court was used to put ‘enemies’ of the Nazis on trial.

Hitler controlled the legal system and made all the laws so that his party could get away with anything.

49

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

What propaganda did the Nazis use?

Posters, Film, Newspapers, Rallies, Radio.

50

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

What are some examples of Film propaganda?

Triumph des Willens (Triumph of the Will, 1934) by Leno Riefenstahl.

Der ewige Jude (The Eternal Jew, 1940) by Fritz Hippler.

51

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

are some examples of Newspaper propaganda?

The Völkischer Beobachter (People’s Observer).

Der Angriff (The Attack).

Der Stürmer, banned for telling Germans that Jews kidnapped children.

52

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

What was the ‘People’s Receiver’?

State-controller radio only tuned to the official Nazi channels.

53

Key Question 2: Rise of the Nazi Party

did people call the ‘People’s Receiver’?

Goebelssenauze (Goebels’ Snout)

54

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What was the Nazi propaganda message?

To promote the Aryan race, the greatness of Germany, and the Fürher cult - Hitler as a god.

55

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

was the Book Burning censorship?

20,000 Jewish and Communist books were burnt in 1933.

56

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What was the Art censorship?

Jewish artists’ work was destroyed.

57

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What was the Newspaper censorship?

By 1938, 10,000 newspapers/magazines had gone and 2,500 text books had been burnt.

58

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What was the Music censorship?

No jazz or dancing that was associated with it.

59

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

How many people were unemployed in 1933?

6 million.

60

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

How many people were unemployed in 1939?

302,000.

61

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

Who were no longer included in unemployment statistics?

Women.

62

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

choice were the unemployed given?

Do whatever work is given to them by the government, or be sent to a concentration camp.

63

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What happened to Jews in 1935?

They lost their citizenship and therefore were no longer counted in unemployment figures.

64

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What happened when conscription was brought in in 1935?

When men were going away in the army they were not counted in unemployment figures.

65

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What was built which created a lot of jobs?

Large numbers of factories were built to make weapons for war.

66

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

was introduced to create jobs?

The National Labour Service (RAD), building roads and planting forests.

67

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What was the German Labour Front?

Whilst workers could not be sacked, they also couldn’t leave a job without government permission.

68

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What improved incentives for people at work?

Holiday camps, theatre trips, cars.

69

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What was life for women like before the Nazis took control?

Women had the vote in Germany.

There were female members in the Reichstag.

Many had good careers.

They were fashion conscious.

They drank and smoked in public and went out on their own.

70

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

When was the Law for the Enforcement of Marriage?

1933.

71

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What were the rules for divorce?

Divorce was only allowed if you couldn’t have children.

72

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What was Lebensborn?

Unmarried women would become pregnant by SS men and ‘donate a baby to the Führer’.

73

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What were mothers awarded medals for?

For having large families.

74

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What encouraged women to have lots of babies?

A big propaganda campaign.

75

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What jobs were discouraged?

Jobs outside the home.

76

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What were the 3Ks that women were encouraged to follow?

Kinder (Children), Kuche (Kitchen), Kirche (Church).

77

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What were women encouraged to do with their appearance?

Keep clean and healthy and wear their hair in a bun or plaits.

78

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What were women not allowed to do with their appearance?

Not allowed to wear make up, trousers, or high heels. Couldn’t dye or style their hair. Weren’t allowed to diet as seen bad for child bearing.

79

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What did teachers have to do?

Swear an oath to the Führer.

80

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

How were textbooks rewritten?

To fit the Nazi view of history and racial purity.

81

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What was a core text?

Mein Kampf.

82

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What did lessons start with?

A salute to Hitler.

83

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What did young Germans learn in Geography?

That Germany was surrounded by hostile countries.

84

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What did young Germans learn in History?

The evil of Communism.

85

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

How much of the curriculum was for PE?

15%.

86

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What did boys have an emphasis on?

Military skills.

87

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What did girls have an emphasis on?

Home making and mothering.

88

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What did 14-18-year-old boys have to take part in?

The Hitler Youth.

89

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What would boys do in the Hitler Youth?

Learn Nazi songs and ideas.

Take part in athletics, hiking, and camping.

Learn military skills.

90

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What did 14-18-year-old girls have to take part in?

The League of German Maidens.

91

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What would girls do in the League of German Maidens?

Learn motherly, marriage, and domestic skills.

92

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

When was the SA Boycott of Jewish Businesses?

1933.

93

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What was the SA Boycott of Jewish Businesses?

Signs were painted on doors telling people not to buy from Jews.

A new law excluded Jews from government jobs.

Jewish books were burnt.

94

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What happened to Jews in 1934?

Jews were banned from public places such as parks and swimming pools.

95

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

When were the Nuremberg Laws?

1935.

96

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What were the Nuremberg Laws?

A series of laws against Jews.

97

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

According to the Nuremberg Laws, if you were Jewish then what couldn’t you have?

‘German blood’ and therefore weren’t allowed to be a German citizen.

98

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What did Jews lose because of the Nuremberg Laws?

Jews lost the right to vote.

99

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What did the Law for the Protection of German Blood ban?

Sex or marriage between Jews and Germans.

100

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What did Jews have to do in 1936?

Carry identity cards and have the middle name ‘Sarah’ or ‘Israel’.

101

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

When was Kristallnacht and what does it mean?

November 1938. Night of the Broken Glass.

102

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What happened on Kristallnacht?

A Polish Jew killed a German official and so the Nazis responded by smashing up Jewish shops and setting fire to synagogues.

103

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

How many Jews were killed during Kristallnacht?

100.

104

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

How many Jews were send to concentration camps during Kristallnacht?

20,000.

105

Key Question 3: Life under the Nazis

What was Kristallnacht the start of?

The Holocaust.

106

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What was brought in in 1939?

Rationing was brought in so food was very restricted to bread, potatoes vegetables.

107

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What was there a limit on in 1939?

There wasa limit on shoes, and Nazis did searches for them.

108

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What did women have to do in 1941?

More women had to go work in factories.

109

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What was the 'Home Front'?

Civilians of a country at war, who remain at home but help with the war effort by working in factories, farming, etc.

110

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

How many German workers in factories were making ammunition in 1941?

50%.

111

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What was Albert Speer doing in 1943?

Using slave labour from Jews and political prisoners to make weapons.

112

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What was happening to German cities in 1943?

Heavy bombing to German cities had destroyed parts of the country, including weapons factories.

113

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

How many German civilians had been killed by 1943?

45,000.

114

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What were the conditions of Germany in 1945?

Berlin had been bombed and almost destroyed.

115

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What was there large amounts of in 1945?

Homelessness.

116

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

How many German civilians had been killed by the time Germany surrendered?

500,000.

117

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

Which three groups opposed the Nazis?

The church, youth groups, the military.

118

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

Who were the main leaders of the church that opposed Hitler?

Martin Niemoller (spent 8 years in a concentration camp) and Diertrich Bonhoeffer (arrested and executed in 1945).

119

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

Why did the church oppose Hitler?

Becuase they believed that the 'German church' was against Christianity and they politically opposed Hitler.

120

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

Which youth group publically opposed Hitler?

The White Rose Group, led by Hans and Sophie Scholl.

121

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What did Hans and Sophie Scholl do in 1943?

They organised a demonstration against the Nazis in Munich.

122

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What happened to Hans and Sophie Scholl?

They were both arrested and brutalled tortured and murdered.

123

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

Why did youth groups oppose Hitler?

They opposed Hitler for taking away ordinary German rights.

124

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

Who in the military opposed Hitler?

Colonel Von Stauffenberg.

125

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What did the military do in July 1944?

Designed a bomb plot to assassinate Hitler but it was unsuccessful and plotters were executed 24 hours after the explosion.

126

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What was the Eisatzgruppen?

An SS squad formed to take control of 'security' which included restricting the lives of Jews.

127

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What did the Eisatzgruppen do in 1939?

They shot Polish Jews, and more Jews in Poland were put into ghettos in awful conditions without enough food and disease spread quickly.

128

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What did Germany do in 1941?

Invade Russia and shot thousands of Russian Jews and put them into mass graves.

129

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

Where did Himmler visit in 1941 and what did he see?

Minsk and saw a mass shooting.

130

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What did Himmler suggest in 1941?

Gas chambers.

131

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

How many Jews had been murdered by 1942?

500,000.

132

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

Where was the 'Final Solution' made?

Wansee Conference.

133

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What was the 'Final Solution'?

The mass killing of all Jews in Europe.

134

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What was the most famous extermination camp?

Auschwitz in Poland.

135

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

How many Jews were killed in gas chambers frfom 1942-1945?

1.1 million.

136

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What were other ways Jews were killed from 1942-1945?

Mass shootings, starvations, disease, burning.

137

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

When were concentration camps liberated by the Allies?

1945.

138

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

How many Jews had been killed by 1945?

6 million.

139

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

How many Jews in Poland were murdered during the Holocaust?

91%.

140

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

Why did Germany lose WW2?

Allies too strong.

Germany fighting too many different battles.

Germany had only preared to fight until 1942 and were low on supplies.

Allies had an excellent navy leading to D-Day.

Code breaking meant the British knew what the Germans were planning.

141

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

When did Hitler commit suicide?

April 1945.

142

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

When did Germany surrender?

May 1945.

143

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

When was the Yalta Conference?

February 1945.

144

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What was decided at the Yalta Conference?

Germany split into 4 zones, each allie having a part.

Berlin split into 4 zones.

Trial held for those reponsible.

145

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

When was the Potsdam Conference?

August 1945.

146

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What was decided at the Potsdam Conference?

Four zones formally agreed.

Allies wouldn't keep control of Germany forever.

Peace treaty with Germany.

All Germans living in Poland, Czecholslovakia, and Hungary had to move back to Germany.

Some reparations.

Nureumberg War Crimes trial.

147

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

How many Germans were forced to leave Poland, Czecholslovakia, and Hungary?

9.5 million.

148

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

How many Germans died leaving Poland, Czecholslovakia, and Hungary?

500,000.

149

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

When were the Nuremberg Trials?

1946.

150

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What happened at the Nuremberg Trials?

21 major Nazis were tried. 12 were sentenced to death and 7 jailed.

151

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What was denazification?

Removing all trace of the Nazis.

152

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What happened to former Nazis during denazification?

They were sacked from their jobs and the party was banned.

153

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What happened to schools during denazification?

They had to be reorganised.

154

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

How many people were linked to the Nazi party during denazification?

6 million.

155

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What was deindustrialisation?

All factories that produced materials used for war were shut down.

156

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What did deindustrialisation lead to?

High unemployment.

157

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What was the Marshall Plan?

The USA lent West Germany $13 billion to help them rebuild.

158

Key Question 4: Life during WW2

What new currency was introduced to stabilise the economy?

Deutschmark.

159

Key Question 5: West and East Germany

Who was West Germany controlled by?

Britain, France, and the USA.

160

Key Question 5: West and East Germany

What did West Germany believe in?

Capitalism and democracy.

161

Key Question 5: West and East Germany

Who was East Germany controlled by?

The USSR.

162

Key Question 5: West and East Germany

What did East Germany believe in?

Communism and dictatorship: Joseph Stalin.

163

Key Question 5: West and East Germany

Who was Chancellor of West Germany?

Chancellor Adenauer.

164

Key Question 5: West and East Germany

What did Chancellor Adenauer want to do?

Restore the West German economy.

Repair the damage done in WW2.

Work towards independence.

Denazify West Germany.

165

Key Question 5: West and East Germany

What were the main parties in West Germany?

Christian Democrats and Social Democrats.

166

Key Question 5: West and East Germany

Why did West Germany experience an 'economic miracle'?

They had almost full employment, low inflation, and high productivity.

167

Key Question 5: West and East Germany

Who was Ludwig Erhard?

The Ecomonic Minister of West Germany.

168

Key Question 5: West and East Germany

What did Ludwig Erhard do?

He stabalised the economy with a strong central bank, new currency, and huge demand for goods.

169

Key Question 5: West and East Germany

What was West Germany famous for producing?

Cars.

170

Key Question 5: West and East Germany

What does a one party state mean?

No free elections, only one party to choose from.

171

Key Question 5: West and East Germany

What was the Stasi?

People who spied on ordinary people. Neighbours spied on each other. Post was read and phone calls were listened to.

172

Key Question 5: West and East Germany

What did most people drive in East Germany?

Mopeds.

173

Key Question 5: West and East Germany

What did the East German government try to stop people doing?

Watching West German television, but people built their own secret antenna.

174

Key Question 5: West and East Germany

What did the East German government encourage people to do?

Have large families.

175

Key Question 5: West and East Germany

What did the East German government give loans and money for?

More children.

176

Key Question 5: West and East Germany

What percentage of West German goods was East Germany producing?

20%.

177

Key Question 5: West and East Germany

How many East Germans moved to West Germany between 1949 and 1961?

3.5 million.

178

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

What were Eastern European countries protecting Russia referred to?

The 'Iron Curtain'.

179

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

What did the West have which scared Stalin?

Atomic weapons.

180

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

When was the Truman Doctrine?

1947.

181

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

What was the Truman Doctrine?

The USA promised to help countries try and fight back against the USSR and Communism.

182

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

When was the Berlin Blockade and Airlift?

1948-49.

183

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

How many West Germans were living in Berlin?

2.4 million.

184

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

What did Stalin order in June 1948?

That road and railways that bring supplies from West Germany into West Berlin were blocked.

185

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

What did Stalin also do in June 1948?

Cut off West Berlin's electricity.

186

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

What did the Allies do in response?

Organised an airlift to bring in supplies.

187

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

Why couldn't Stalin shoot down the planes?

It would start a nuclear war.

188

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

How long did the airlilft go on for?

11 months.

189

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

How much did the airlift cost the Allies?

$200 million.

190

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

When did Stalin call off the blockade?

May 1949.

191

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

When was NATO formed?

1949.

192

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

What does NATO stand for?

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation.

193

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

What was NATO?

11 European countries plus USA and Canada promised to support each other in the event of war.

194

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

What was the Bundeswhur?

West Germany's new army built up in 1955.

195

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

When was the Warsaw Pact?

1955.

196

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

What was the Warsaw Pact?

All of the Communist countries in East Europe promised to help each other if a war broke out.

197

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

What did the USSR also have in 1955?

Atomic weapons.

198

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

Who was the new USSR leader after Stalin was dead?

Nikita Khrushchev.

199

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

What did Nikita Khrushchev do in 1958?

He tried to blockade Berlin again but it didn't work.

200

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

When was the Berlin Wall built?

Overnight on 13 August 1961.

201

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

How long was the Berlin Wall?

91 miles around the whole of West Berlin.

202

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

What did the Berlin Wall look like?

It had two concrete walls parallel to each other, barbed wire on the top, and a death strip in the middle.

203

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

What was the most famous point of Berlin Wall?

Checkpoint Charlie.

204

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

How many people were killed trying to cross the Berlin Wall?

Over 100. 41 in the first year alone.

205

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

Who couldn't remove the Berlin Wall as it would cause a nuclear war?

President John F. Kennedy.

206

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

How long was the Berlin Wall up for?

28 years.

207

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

Who was Willy Brandt?

Chancellor of West Germany in the 1960s.

208

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

What did Willy Brandt want to do?

Improve relations between East and West Germany, and also with Poland.

209

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

What was Ostpolitik?

A policy to try and make things better between East and West Germany.

210

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

What were the main points of Ostpolitik?

Peace treaty between East and West Germany.

All Polish land given back. Willy Brandt would pay respect to Polish Jews killed in the Holocaust.

211

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

When was the Basic Treaty?

1972.

212

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

What did the Basic Treaty do?

It allowed East and West German politicians to meet and make agreements more easily.

213

Key Question 6: Cold War Relations

What did Willy Brandt win?

A Nobel Peace Prize.

214

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

What were the three types of reasons for the fall of Communism in Eastern Europe?

Politcal, Social, Economic.

215

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

Why did people not trust the USSR government?

They were very corrupt and hid a lot of errors they made.

216

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

Which country violently overthrew their Communist government?

Bulgaria.

217

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

Who was strongly anti-Communist in 1980?

USA President Ronal Regan.

218

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

Who was the new President of the USSR in 1985?

Mikhail Gorbechev.

219

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

What did Mikhail Gorbechev introduce?

Policies of perestroika (allowing proper voting) and glasnost (more freedom).

220

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

Where were free elections held?

Poland.

221

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

What were people no long willing to put up with?

The USSR spying on them and censorship.

222

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

What were major problems in Communist countries?

Crime, alcoholism, and drugs.

223

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

When was Chernobyl?

1986.

224

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

How did Chernobyl affect the people of Eastern Europe?

It made them less supportive of nuclear weapons.

225

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

What did East Germans do in 1989?

Peacefully revolt against the government.

226

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

What did the USSR do in 1979?

Invaded Afghanistan and lost huge amounts of money.

227

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

What were out of date and no longer made much money?

Factories and mines.

228

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

Who was the Chancellor of East Germany when the Berlin Wall fell?

Egon Krenz.

229

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

What did Egon Krenz decide?

To make the rules about travel between East and West Berlin more relaxed, but you would still need paperwork and apply for visas.

230

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

Who was the spokesman for East Germany?

Gunter Schabowski.

231

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

What did Gunter Schabowski not realise while reading out Krenz' notes?

That the relaxed travel wasn't going to happen for several months and would still require paperwork.

232

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

Why did the guards let people through the Berlin Wall?

They were confused.

233

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

What did the crowds do?

They started pushing the wall and chipping away piece of it.

234

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

Why did the East German government allow them through?

They were not willing to try and defeat the thousands of people.

235

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

When did the Berlin Wall fall?

9 November 1989.

236

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

What does reunification mean?

East and West Germany coming back together.

237

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

How many East Germans permanently left for the West?

300,000.

238

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

What did West Germany give the USSR to support reunification?

133 billion Deutschmarks.

239

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

What happened in East Germany in March 1990?

Elections showed that there was a vast majority in support of reunification.

240

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

What happened in May 1990?

The two currencies in East and West Germany merged into one.

241

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

When was the Treaty of Unification signed?

August 1990.

242

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

When was Germany officially united?

3 October 1990.

243

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

Who was Helmut Kohl?

Chancellor of West Germany in 1983 and the first Chancellor of a unified Germany.

244

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

Who did Helmut Kohl have very good relationships with?

The French and USA Presidents.

245

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

How many countries did the USSR control at one point?

15.

246

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

What did Mikhail Gorbechev allow in USSR controlled countries?

Free elections.

247

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

Who left Communist control first?

Poland and Czechoslovakia.

248

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

Who was Boris Yeltsin?

Leader of Russia.

249

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

What did Boris Yeltsin do?

He tried to open up the market but it all went wrong and lots of people got angry and he started killing them.

250

Key Question 7: Co-operation and Reconciliation

What else was over when the USSR ended?

The Cold War.