The Heart & Vascular Anatomy Flashcards Preview

AP: Cumulative > The Heart & Vascular Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Heart & Vascular Anatomy Deck (30):
0

What are the three functions of the fibrous pericardium?

Protect heart
Anchor heart
Prevent heart from overfilling

1

What is the function of the serous pericardium?

Allows the heart to work and a relatively friction free environment

2

The structure of the heart can be broken into what three main tissue types?

Epicardium
Myocardium (contractile tissue)
Endocardium (valves)

3

Systemic and pulmonary circulation are associated with which side of the heart?

Right heart = pulmonary
Left heart = Systemic

4

How many valves are there in the heart and where are they located?

4
Tricuspid = R av
Mitral = L av
Pulmonic = RV @ pulm. art
Aortic = LV @ aorta

5

Describe the flow of blood through the heart

RA -> (tricuspid) -> RV ->(pulmonic) -> pulm arteries -> Lungs -> pulm veins -> LA -> (mitral) -> LV -> (aortic) -> aorta -> systemic circ

6

The foramen ovale and ductus arteriosis form shunts between what structures in the fetal circulation?

FO = RA + LA
DA = pulm art + aorta

7

FO and DA blood flow bypasses what in fetal circulation?

Lungs

8

Describe the conduction system in the heart

SA -> AV -> bundle of his -> AV bundles -> purkinje fibers

9

What is automaticity?

Intrinsic pacemaker SA node

10

Where does the heart receive its parasympathetic innervation?

Vagus nerve

11

Where does the heart receive its sympathetic innervation?

Cardiac plexus of T1 - T5
Visceral afferents

12

Blood plasma is composed of what percentage water?

90%

13

What is the difference between CBC, BMP and differential?

CBC: Complete blood count
BMP: Basic metabolic panel
Differential: Detailed WBC

14

What is the lifespan of an erythrocyte?

RBC = 120 days

15

What is diapedesis?

White blood cells can leave capillaries and go into tissues via an inflammatory pathway

16

Leukocytes can be divided into what two main groups?

Granulocytes and agranulocytes

17

What are the three types of granulocytes and what do they do?

Eosinophils = Phagocytize antigen antibody complexes
Basophils = Combat allergens by releasing histamine
Neutrophils = Antibiotic like proteins that cause bacteriolysis

18

What is the most common granulocyte?

Neutrophils

19

What are the two different types of agranulocytes?

Lymphocytes = phagocytize tumor cells
monocytes = high in chronic infections

20

How do platelets cause vasoconstriction?

Release serotonin

21

Plasma is what percent of total blood volume?

55%

22

The vasculature can be divided into what three layers?

Tunica externa
Tunica media
Tunica intima

23

Which layer is thickest in veins?
.....arteries?

Tunica externa = veins
Tunica media = arteries

24

What is the functional unit of CVS?

Capillaries

25

60% of total blood volume is stored where?

Veins

26

PVR is affected by....

Temperature
Disease
Anesthesia

27

What is the function Of the pulmonary capillaries?

Gas exchange
Metabolism of biochemicals
Conversion of interactive to active biochemicals

28

Alpha and beta receptors are responsible for vasoconstriction vasodilation?

Alpha = Vasoconstriction
Beta = vasodilation

29

In large veins flow can be affected by....

Abdominal and intrathoracic pressure changes