The Julio-Claudian Emperors 31BC - AD68 - Augustus Flashcards

1
Q

When was the Battle of Actium?

A

2nd September 31BC

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2
Q

What city did Octavian found near Actium?

A

Nikopolis

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3
Q

What did Octavian dedicate as a victory offering after Actium?

A

Ten ships dedicated to a local dockyard

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4
Q

What source describes the ‘huge crowds and universal acclaim’ which met Augustus on his return from Actium?

A

Velleius Paterculus

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5
Q

Who was Marcus Agrippa?

A

Commander of the fleet at Actium. Augustus’ closest ally until his death in 12BC

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6
Q

When was the First Constitutional Settlement?

A

27BC

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7
Q

When was the Second Constitutional Settlement?

A

23BC

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8
Q

What was outlined in the First Constitutional settlement?

A
  • title of Augustus (revered one)
  • certain honours e.g laurel on doorposts
  • redistributed provinces
  • to last 10 years
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9
Q

In the Res Gestae, how does Augustus describe his role in the Government?

A

He says he had more auctoritas than everyone else, but had no more potestas than his colleagues

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10
Q

What does Dio say of Augustus’s reason for redistributing the provinces?

A

“that the senators should be unarmed and unprepared for war, while he possessed arms and controlled troops”

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11
Q

Main 2 reasons for the Second Constitutional Settlement 23BC?

A
  • Augustus took 1 of 2 consulships which snubbed the senators
  • Augustus’ loose collection of honours and titles couldn’t be passed down
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12
Q

Two powers of the 2nd Constitutional Settlement 23BC?

A
  • imperium proconsulare maius
  • tribunicia potestas
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13
Q

Power of Imperium proconsulare maius?

A
  • power greater than that of a consul
  • meant Augustus could overrule any provincial governor’s authority
  • didn’t need to be laid down at the Pomerium - therefore meant lifelong military power
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14
Q

Power of Tribunicia potestas?

A
  • the power of a tribune
  • could call the senate, put forward ideas, veto legislation
  • meant Augustus could pass legislation
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15
Q

Who said that tribunicia potestas was the expression of the supremacy of Augustus’ position?

A

Tacitus

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16
Q

What was the triple triumph celebrating?

A

Octavian’s military victories at Dalmatia, Actium and Alexandria

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17
Q

What was built in Rome as a celebration of Octavian’s civil war victory?

A

The triple triumphal arch

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18
Q

Examples of coinage celebrating military victories?

A
  • trimple triumph on denarii
  • the capture of Egypt 27BC
  • annexation of Armenia 20/19/18BC
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19
Q

What point does Augustus make in the Res Gestae to stress the peace of his reign? Which ancient writer also points this out?

A

that the doors of the temple of Janus were closed 3 times in his reign when before he was born they were only closed twice.
Suetonius repeats this point

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20
Q

“the limbs of the body politic…. healing back together”

A

Paterculus on Augustus’ reign

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21
Q

2 prophetic passages in what promote the idea that Augustus was predestined to rule?

A

Virgil’s Aeneid

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22
Q

“What has destructive Time not made worse”

A

Horace Ode 3.6 - on the need for social and moral restoration of Rome

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23
Q

2 examples of coinage portraying Augustus restoring Rome?

A

28BC aureus - ‘he has restored to the Roman people their laws and rights’

12BC aureus - Augustus is portrayed extending his right hand to a representation of the roman state. Literally raising it from its knees

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24
Q

Augustus is ‘who shall bring back again the age of gold to Latium’

A

Virgil Aeneid

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25
Q

Suetonius says that Augustus was concerned ‘native Roman stock’ not be contaminated by what?

A

foreign or servile blood

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26
Q

What two pieces of legislation made up Augustus’ moral reforms in 18BC?

A

‘the Julian Law on the duties of husbands’ and ‘the Julian Law on constraining adultery’

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27
Q

When was Augustus’ moral legislation passed and how?

A

18BC - due to his Tribunician power

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28
Q

How many lustra did Augustus perform in his reign?

A

3

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29
Q

When was the first census of Augustus? When was the last?

A

28BC
14AD

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30
Q

Evidence that Rome flourished under Augustus?

A

The population increased with every census

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31
Q

Who says that Augustus repeatedly turned down the role of dictator he was offered?

A

Paterculus

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32
Q

What source compares Augustus to Romulus?

A

Ovid’s Fasti

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33
Q

When did Augustus become Pontifex Maximus?

A

12BC

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34
Q

What did Augustus do as Pontifex Maximus which rewrote tradition to fit his values?

A

Rewrote the Sibylline books and destroyed 2000 volumes of prophetic verse
(source: Suetonius)

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35
Q

Who presented Augustus as a god incarnate?

A

Horace

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36
Q

How many simultaneous priesthoods did Augustus hold, according to the Res Gestae?

A

7 - at least 4 shown on denarii before Pontifex Maximus

37
Q

How many temples did Augustus claim to have restored in Rome? What source gives an exaggerated number?

A

Res Gestae - 82
Virgil’s Aeneid - 300

38
Q

“it was our blessed leader’s care… that all the rest should never be suffered likewise to decay”

A

Ovid Fasti on Augustus’ restoration of temples

39
Q

“O holy one, builder of temples and rebuilder too”

A

Ovid Fasti on Augustus

40
Q

Which provinces were permitted to worship Augustus as a living god?

A

Egypt and the Eastern provinces

41
Q

What did Suetonius say of Augustus’ thoughts on allowing his imperial cult in the east?

A
  • he had respect for long-standing religions
  • he felt it was dangerous to worship a living person
42
Q

Where did Augustus allow a temple to himself and Rome to be built in 29BC?

A

Pergamum

43
Q

numen

A

the divine aspect of a human

44
Q

genius

A

the spirit of a human

45
Q

What allowed Augustus to be worshipped without claiming to be beyond human?

A

The worship of his numen and genius

46
Q

“there was no honour left for the gods, now that Augustus chose to be worshipped”

A

Tacitus

47
Q

2 pieces of inscriptional evidence about Augustus’ religious worship?

A

7BC inscription from Rome introducing priests of the cult of the Augustan Lares

12/13 AD inscription from Gaul on an altar to Augustus’ numen

48
Q

How many districts did Augustus divide Rome into?

A

14

49
Q

How were Rome’s new districts run?

A

districts - magistrates annually chosen by lot

subdivided into wards - locally elected supervisors

50
Q

What service did Augustus establish in Rome?

A

A fire brigade (and regulations to prevent fires)

51
Q

Sources which describe Augustus’ diligence in adjusting and introducing laws?

A

Paterculus - says the laws were mostly good
Suetonius

52
Q

How many times does Augustus say he revised the senatorial roll?

A

3 times (probs 29,18,11BC)

53
Q

How many senators supported Augustus in the Civil wars out of 1000?

A

700 ish

54
Q

What restriction did Augustus impose to rid the Senate of those who had not supported him in the civil wars?

A

Property restrictions - more than doubled to 1 million sesterces minimum

55
Q

How many senators were removed in Augustus’ first revision c.28BC?

A

190

56
Q

How many Senators by 18BC?

A

600

57
Q

Augustan policies which seemed to appease the Senate?

A

new offices for upkeep of buildings, roads, aqueducts and grain distribution
2 new roles as praetor
new role as praefectus urbi

58
Q

What evidence shows Augustus personally controlling provinces?

A

Edicts of Cyrene c.7BC showing his involvement in deciding details jury composition and citizenship in the province of Cyrene

59
Q

What did the role of princeps allow to Romans which was new?

A

The ability to appeal to a single face - not a faceless bureaucracy nor an ever-changing Republican magistrate

60
Q

Augustus found “a Rome built of bricks” and left it “clothed in marble”

A

Suetonius on the building programme

61
Q

Suetonius’ reason for Augustus’ building programme?

A

creating a Rome which was worthy of being the capital of an empire

62
Q

What building did the building programme centre on?

A

The Augustan Forum - with its Temple of Mars Ultor

63
Q

Who oversaw an aqueduct improvement project from 33BC?

A

Marcus Agrippa

64
Q

Why did Augustus work hard to keep the plebs on side?

A

He was switching from a democracy to an autocracy

65
Q

What two methods did Augustus use to gain plebian support?

A

public entertainment
largesse

66
Q

Augustus “seduced the soldiery with gifts, the people with corn, and everyone with the delights of peace”

A

Tacitus

67
Q

“to Jupiter… the Senate and People of Rome took vows for the safety of Imperator Caesar because through him the State is in a more expansive and peaceful condition”? - Source

A

Denarius from 16BC

68
Q

In what year did the people riot over corn supply, which Augustus quickly fixed after demands he become dictator?

A

22BC - the first year Augustus did not serve as consul prompting speculation this event was engineered by him

69
Q

congiaria

A

handouts to the people of Rome

70
Q

What congiaria was given in 24BC?

A

400 sesterces each

71
Q

Augustus and Equestrians?

A

He helped them become a distinct political group, creating certain roles exclusively for them such as governor of Egypt

72
Q

Augustus’ placation of the Senate?

A
  • giving money
  • extended the lower ranks of cursus honorum to allow more senators to gain political experience
73
Q

Augustus against the Senate?

A
  • banned from Egypt
  • consilium principis rendered them useless
  • 5% inheritance tax on senators from AD6 which went to military treasury
74
Q

Who remarked that few Senators remained by AD14 who had seen the Republic

A

Tacitus

75
Q

What conspiracy against Augustus is doubted whether or not he invented it?

A

Caepio c.23BC

76
Q

Which ancient sources mention the conspiracy of Caepio against Augustus?

A
  • Suetonius
  • Paterculus
  • Macrobius
77
Q

What conspiracy does Seneca mention?

Date, people involved

A

16BC
- Cinna was treated leniently by Augustus and given a consulship, on Livia’s advice

78
Q

How does Tacitus describe the culture of Augustus’ reign? Who does he blame?

A

Tacitus says the culture was of flattery for Augustus, for which he blames the aristocracy more than Augustus himself

79
Q

Who presents Tiberius’ succession positively? Why?

A

Paterculus
He wrote during Tiberius’ reign

80
Q

Tacitus’ order of events of Augustus finding a successor?

A
  • marries Julia to Marcellus
  • marries Julia to Agrippa
  • makes promotes Gaius and Lucius
  • adopts Tiberius
81
Q

Who does Tacitus claim had a hand in the deaths of Gaius (AD4) and Lucius (AD2)?

A

Livia

82
Q

What evidence is there that Agrippa was Augustus’ initial favourite for a successor?

A

denarius from 13BC showing the men together sharing tribunician power

83
Q

Aureus of Tiberius 15-13BC?

A

Shows him and Drusus presenting triumphal branches to Augustus - likely in recognition of their conquest of Raetia

84
Q

What powers did the Senate decree to Gaius and Lucius? (2)

A
  • princeps iuventutis - ‘leader of the youth’
  • consul designate aged 15
85
Q

Evidence of Gaius’ and Lucius’ preference for successors?

A

Res Gestae, Tacitus, commemorative aureus of them as princeps iuventutis

86
Q

Evidence of Tiberius as final choice for Augustus’ successor?

A

aureus of Tiberius and Augustus from AD 13-14

87
Q

Evidence that Augustus was concerned with succession beyond his immediate replacement?

A

Tiberius adopting Germanicus in AD4

88
Q

Evidence of Augustus being presented as youthful and full of vigour throughout his reign?

A

as of Augustus from 11-12AD when he would have been 73 - yet portrayed the same as when he was much younger