Flashcards in Topic 6A - Introduction to organic chemistry Deck (16):
What is a hydrocarbon?
A compound that contains only hydrogen and carbon.
What is meant by the term 'homologous series'?
A family of compounds which all contain the same functional group and each member in the contains one more CH2 than the previous member. [They all share a common general formula].
What is a 'functional group'?
The group of atoms which gives an organic compound its characteristic properties and reactions.
What are the prefixes for the first ten carbon chains?
meth, eth, prop, but, pent, hex, hept, oct, non, dec
What is an addition reaction?
A reaction in which two molecules add together to make a single product.
What is a substitution reaction?
A reaction in which one atom or group is replaced by another atom or group.
What is an elimination reaction?
A reaction which produces an unsaturated product by the loss of atoms or groups from adjacent carbon atoms.
What is a hydrolysis reaction?
A reaction in which a compound splits apart in a reaction involving water.
What is a polymerisation reaction?
An addition reaction in which small molecules, called monomers, join together forming a giant molecule, called a polymer.
What is an oxidation reaction?
A reaction in which a species is oxidised (loses electrons or gains an oxygen)
What is a reduction reaction?
A reaction in which a species is reduced (gains electrons or loses an oxygen or gains hydrogen)
What are structural isomers?
Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formula.
When does stereoisomerism occur?
When molecules molecules have the same molecular formula and the same structural formula but have a different spatial arrangements. For example at double bonds E/Z isomerism can occur.
E-isomers have the larger functional groups on...
Opposite sides of the double bond.
When does a cis-trans isomerism occur?
When two substituent groups in the E/Z isomer are the same.