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Flashcards in Toxicology Deck (77)
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1

Alcohol
Oxycodone

Most common substance abuse
Most licit abused is oxycodone

2

Posion

Substance that is toxic by nature no matter how it gets into the body or how much is taken

3

Drug

A substance that has some therapeutic effect when given in appropiate circumstance and dose

4

Overdose

When a drug, licit, or illicit, is taken in excess

5

Bioavailixbility

Describe the extent to which any drug is present in sufficient amounts to produce the desired effect

6

Toxicological emergencies

Fall into two categories,
Intentional and unintentional

7

Toddlers

Will put anything in their mouth, including dangerous medications

8

Chloral Hydrate

Also known as "knock out drops" are used to commit assault for decades

9

Rohypnol

Date Rape drug

10

Flunitrazepam

A powerful benzodiazepine that has both antegrade and retrograde amnesiac properties to erase memory for next 4-5 hours

11

Posion Center Number

18002221222

12

Four Methods of Absoprtion

Ingestion
Inhalation
Injection
Absorption

13

Ingested Posions

Immediate damage to tissues, or may be delayed for several hours
-Look for stained fingers, lips, or tounge a
-Sudden report of cramps, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
-look for empty pill bottles
-ingestion is usually a more forgiving time frame for identification and treatment
-Goal: remove or neutralize the posion before it gains access to intestines

14

Inhaled Posions

First, the person will remained poisoned as long as they are exposed, as well as the paramedic
Second, atmosphere poisoning, you are likely to encounter more than one patient
-Home agents such as Clorox or Bleach are responsible for most inhalation Emergencies
-CO poisoning is a painless suicide
-CO can be caused by old furnaces as well
Inhaled substances reach the alveoli instantly gaining almost instant access to the circulatory system

15

Carbon Monoxide

Binds to hemoglobin 250x more readily than oxygen

16

Injection Poisioning

Sting, bites from insects and animals
IV drugs such as meth, heroin, cocaine

17

Absorption Posioning

When substance is absorbed through skin
E.g organophosphate

18

Toxidrome

The Syndrome-like symptoms of a class or group of similar posionous agents
Are useful for remembering and management of different substances that fall under same clinical umbrella

19

Toxidrome Categories

Stimulants
Narcotics
Cholinergics
Anticholinergics
Sympathomimetics
Sedative/Hypnotics

20

Stimulant Examples

Amphetamine
Methamphetamine
Cocaine
Diet Aids
Nasal Decongestants
Bath Salts

21

Stimulants Signs and Symptoms

Restlessness, agitation, incessant talking
Insomnia, anorexia, dilated pupils, tachycardia, tachypnea, paranoia, seizure

22

Narcotic Examples

Heroin
Opium
Morphine
Dilaudid (hydromorphine)
Fentanyl
Oxycodone
Ambien
Secobarbital

23

Narcotic Signs and Symptoms

Constricted pupils, respiratory depression,
Needle tracks, drowsiness, coma

24

Sympathomimetic Examples

Pseudoephedrine, amphetamine, methamphetamine

25

Sympathomimetic Signs and Symptoms

Hypertension, tachycardia, dilated pupils, hyperthermia, seizures

26

Sedative/Hypnotic Examples

Phenobarbital, diazepam, midazolam, lorazepam

27

Sedative/Hypnotic Signs and Symptoms

Drowsiness, ataxia, slurred speech, ams, CNS depression, hypotension

28

Cholinergic Examples

Acephate
Diazinon
Celthion
Cythion
Sarin
Parathion

29

Cholinergic Signs and Symptoms

Increased salivation, lacrimation, diarrhea. Respiratory depression, apnea, seizures

30

Anticholinergic Examples

Atropine
Antihistamines
Antipsychotics