unit 2-2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in unit 2-2 Deck (18):
1

an antecedent stimulus
that evokes the imitative behavior

must be the controlling
variable for any imitative behavior

model

2

Prearranged antecedent stimuli that
facilitate new skills (istructors, teanchers,
video models

Planned Modeling

3

All antecedent stimuli with the capacity to
evoke imitation are potentially....... (Cooper, et al., pg. 413).”
 For example, kids in social situations

Unplanned Modeling

4

A way to teach the learner to imitate
or do exactly what the person
providing the model is doing.
Instructor models an action and the
learner imitates that action, with very
brief latency.
Model says, “Do this” plus emits an
action and the learner imitates the
exact action

Imitation Training

5

Fine Motor Imitation: Movement with
fingers
 Teaching sign language
 Gross Motor Imitation: Large
movement
 Jumping, clapping, stomping, waving…
 Object Imitation: Moving a car, flying an
airplane, stacking blocks
 When teaching play skills, this area is
important

Types of Imitation

6

Keep in mind that learners must be
able to attend to the model in order
to effectively imitate
Learners must have some basic
compliance skills, such as staying
seated, keeping hands down, looking
or tracking people and objects

Imitation Training Skills

7

Planned Model

Instructor (Contrived)

Unplanned Model

Peers (Ultimate outcome)

Have to have attending and basic
compliance skills

Imitation Training

8

Gaining compliance is a critical
element in teaching our learners.
Come Here
Sit down
Fold hands
Walk with me
Stop
Wait

Compliance Training
(Instructional Control)

9

A procedure for investigating
conditional relations. A sample stimulus
is presented and the learner must
match the appropriate corresponding
stimuli to the sample stimulus. Then 2
or 3 other stimuli are added to the array
of sample stimuli. The responses that
match the comparison stimuli to the
sample stimuli are reinforced

Match-to-Sample

10

Side preference
Guessing
Mixing the order of the sample stimuli
Mixing the order of the comparative
stimuli

Match-to-Sample Considerations

11

Antecedent manipulation prior to a
difficult/high effort task or a response
that is relatively infrequent (lowprobability)

 A sequence of 2-5 high-probability
(easy) tasks followed by a lowprobability
(difficult) task
 After each easy task, there is some
form of reinforcement

High-Probability
Reque

12

Following directions or complying
with requests of others.
Go get your shoes
Give me your backpack
Turn in your homework in the red tray
Give me the one that you drive

Listener Responding (Receptive)

13

Feature
The parts of items and descriptions of
items
Function
The actions that typically go with the
items or what one does with the items
and classes
Class
The group(s) the items belong

Listener Responding by
Feature, Function, and Class

14

New skills: Prompt right away
(echoic, gestural, textual prompts)

Example: Hand-washing

Individualize form of prompt

Errorless Teaching

15

Prompt is an antecedent stimulus

Use most effective prompt for learner

Use differential reinforcement with prompt fading

Manipulate the parameters of reinforcement

Summary of Errorless Learning

16

Different reinforcers in a
discrimination task

Each reinforcer correlated with a
given stimulus

Can increase rate of acquisition
and/or maintain higher steady state
performance: Differential Outcome
Effect (DOE)

Produces the Differential
Outcome Effect (DOE)

Research has shown this procedure
to be effective in difficult
discrimination tasks

Differential Outcomes Procedure

17

Research has shown this procedure
to be effective in difficult
discrimination tasks

Differential Outcomes Procedure

18

Produces the Differential
Outcome Effect (DOE

Differential Outcomes Procedure