Flashcards in Unit 2- Research Methods (8-10%) Deck (40):

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## Validity

### Refers to how well a test measures what it is purported to measure.

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## Case Study

### An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.

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## Illusory Correlation

### The perception of a relationship where none exists.

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## Placebo Effect

### Experimental results caused by expectation alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.

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## Scatterplot

### A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation. (Little scatter indicates high correlation)

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## Correlation Coefficient

### A statistic index of the relationship between two things. (From -1 to +1). The closer the value is to 1, the stronger the correlation.

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## Reliability

### The degree to which an assessment tool produces stable and consistent results.

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## Median

### The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it

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## Mode

### The most frequently occurring scores in a distribution

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## Range

### The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

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## Standard deviation

### A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

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## Normal curve

### A symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean and fewer and fewer near the extremes.

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## Mean

### The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores

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## Normal Distribution (Normal Curve)

### A bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean (68% fall within one standard deviation of it, and fewer near the extremes).

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## Inferential Statistics

### Used to make generalizations from a sample population.

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## Informed Consent

### An ethical principle that research participants must be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.

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## Debriefing

### The post-experimental explanation of a study.

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## Institutional Review Board

### Committee designated to review, monitor, and approve behavioral research involving humans.

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## Statistical Significance

### A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.

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## Confounding variables

### Outside variables that can alter the result of the experiment.

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## Dependent Variable

### The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

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## Scientific method

### A self correcting recess for asking questions and observing natures answers

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## Theory

### An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.

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## Replication

### Repeating the essence of a research study.usually with different participants in in different situations to see whether the basic findings extend to different participants and circumstances.

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## Operational Definition

### Statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures

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## Population

### All the cases in a group being studied, from school samples may be drawn

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## Random Sample

### A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

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## Random Assignment

### Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups

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## Experimental Group

### In an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable

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## Control Group

### In an experiment, the group that isn't exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment

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## Correlation Research

### A study to show how closely two things vary to each other.

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## Double-Blind Procedure

### During an experiment where both the experimenter and participants are blind about if they receive a placebo or not. and the

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## Survey

### Used to estimate the behaviors of a whole population from a group of people.

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## Naturalistic Observation

### Watches behavior and describes it.

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## Experimenter Bias

### A process where the scientists performing the research influence the results, in order to portray a certain outcome.

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## Single-blind Procedure

### An experiment where the experimenter knows what is the placebo and what isn't but the participants do not.

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## Hindsight Bias

### the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.

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## Hypothesis

### a testable prediction, often implied by a theory.

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## Null hypothesis

### a statistical hypothesis that is tested for possible rejection under the assumption that it is true (usually that observations are the result of chance).

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