Unit 2- Research Methods (8-10%) Flashcards Preview

AP Psych > Unit 2- Research Methods (8-10%) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 2- Research Methods (8-10%) Deck (40):
1

Validity

Refers to how well a test measures what it is purported to measure.

2

Case Study

An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.

3

Illusory Correlation

The perception of a relationship where none exists.

4

Placebo Effect

Experimental results caused by expectation alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.

5

Scatterplot

A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation. (Little scatter indicates high correlation)

6

Correlation Coefficient

A statistic index of the relationship between two things. (From -1 to +1). The closer the value is to 1, the stronger the correlation.

7

Reliability

The degree to which an assessment tool produces stable and consistent results.

8

Median

The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it

9

Mode

The most frequently occurring scores in a distribution

10

Range

The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

11

Standard deviation

A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

12

Normal curve

A symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean and fewer and fewer near the extremes.

13

Mean

The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores

14

Normal Distribution (Normal Curve)

A bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean (68% fall within one standard deviation of it, and fewer near the extremes).

15

Inferential Statistics

Used to make generalizations from a sample population.

16

Informed Consent

An ethical principle that research participants must be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.

17

Debriefing

The post-experimental explanation of a study.

18

Institutional Review Board

Committee designated to review, monitor, and approve behavioral research involving humans.

19

Statistical Significance

A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.

20

Confounding variables

Outside variables that can alter the result of the experiment.

21

Dependent Variable

The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

22

Scientific method

A self correcting recess for asking questions and observing natures answers

23

Theory

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.

24

Replication

Repeating the essence of a research study.usually with different participants in in different situations to see whether the basic findings extend to different participants and circumstances.

25

Operational Definition

Statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures

26

Population

All the cases in a group being studied, from school samples may be drawn

27

Random Sample

A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

28

Random Assignment

Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups

29

Experimental Group

In an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable

30

Control Group

In an experiment, the group that isn't exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment

31

Correlation Research

A study to show how closely two things vary to each other.

32

Double-Blind Procedure

During an experiment where both the experimenter and participants are blind about if they receive a placebo or not. and the

33

Survey

Used to estimate the behaviors of a whole population from a group of people.

34

Naturalistic Observation

Watches behavior and describes it.

35

Experimenter Bias

A process where the scientists performing the research influence the results, in order to portray a certain outcome.

36

Single-blind Procedure

An experiment where the experimenter knows what is the placebo and what isn't but the participants do not.

37

Hindsight Bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.

38

Hypothesis

a testable prediction, often implied by a theory.

39

Null hypothesis

a statistical hypothesis that is tested for possible rejection under the assumption that it is true (usually that observations are the result of chance).

40

Independent variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.