Unit 4- Sensation and Perception (6-8%) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 4- Sensation and Perception (6-8%) Deck (65):
1

Size Constancy

We perceive objects as having a constant size, even when our distance from them varies

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Shape Constancy

We perceive the form of familiar objects as a constant even while our retinal image of it changes

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Closure

We fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object. Thus we assume that the circles are complete but partially blocked by the triangle. Add nothing more than little line segments that close off the circles and now your brain stops constructing a triangle.

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Constancy

Unchanging and constant in perception, shape, or size.

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Ossicles

Any of three small bones in the middle ear that transfer sounds from the air to the cochlea. They are the smallest bones in the body.

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Oval Window

The cochlea's membrane.

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Eardrum

Tight membrane that vibrates with the sound waves from the outer ear

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Iris

A colored muscle that adjusts light intake

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Lens

focuses incoming light rays into an image

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Frequency Theory

In hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense it's pinch.

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Nerve Deafness

Hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea'a receptor cells or to the auditory nerves.

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Sensation

Sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment.

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Perception

The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.

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Transduction

Conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensations, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret.

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Sensory adaptation/habituation

Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation.

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Cocktail Party Phenomenon

Your ability to attend to only one voice among many. An example of selective attention.

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Light Intensity and Wavelength

Light intensity affects how bright an object appears, and the color or hue is affected by the light wavelength in the visual color spectrum an object reflects. Objects that appear black actually absorb all colors, while objects that are white reflect all light wavelengths. The blue sky absorbs all colors but blue, which it reflects.

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Conduction hearing loss

Hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea

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Gate control theory

The theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The "gate" is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain

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Shadowing

Uses light and darkness to signal to the viewer the location of objects

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Retinal/Binocular Disparity

Retinal disparity is defined as the way that your left eye and your right eye view slightly different images. Retinal disparity is important in gauging how far away objects are. The more difference (or greater disparity) between the image each eye has of the same object, the closer it is to you.

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Convergence

The muscles of the eyes send signals to the brain as they move, the more they converge (turn inward toward each other), the closer an object must be.

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Accommodation

The process by which the lens bends and focuses the rays of light on the retina

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Cochlear Implant

Electronic device that directly converts sounds and stimulates the auditory nerve. A correction for nerve deafness.

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Figure-ground

The organization of our visual field into objects (figure) and their surroundings (ground).

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Blind spot

The point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there.

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Optic nerve

The nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.

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Afterimages

After you stare at a color for a certain amount of time and then you stare at a blank wall you will see the opposite color. Opposite colors are red-green, yellow-blue, and white-black.

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Color blindess

Lacks functioning red or green sensitive cones or even sometimes both.

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Rods

Retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision when cones don't respond.

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Proximity

When we group nearby figures together

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Continuity

When we perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones.

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Gustation

Tasting

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The different tastes

Sweet, salty, bitter, sour, umami

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Linear perspective

The eyes sense of depth and distance perception

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Relative size

A perceptual clue that allows you to determine how close objects are to an object of known size.

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Brightness Constancy

We perceive an object as having a constant lightness even while its surrounding lighting.

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Visual Cliff

A safe cliff experiment to test if newborn animals and infants could perceive depth.

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Pinna

Outer ear

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Vestibular sense

The sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance

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Olfaction

The sense of smell. The resulting experiences of smell are strikingly intimate: You inhale something of whatever or whoever it is you smell.

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Interposition

If one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer. (Depth Cue)

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Texture Gradient

The distortion in size which closer objects have compared to objects farther away.

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Signal detection theory

demonstrates that individual absolute thresholds vary, depending on the strength of the signal and also on our experience, expecta- tions, motivation, and alertness.

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Top-down processing

demonstrates that individual absolute thresholds vary, depending on the strength of the signal and also on our experience, expectations, motivation, and alertness.

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Cornea

Outer protective layer of the eye

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Pupil

The adjustable opening in the eye

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Retina

The photosensitive inner surface on the back of the eye, contains the rods and cones

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Cones

Retinal receptor cells near the center of retina. Function in daylight, responsible for color and detailed vision.

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Fovea

Cluster of cones in the center of retina, our area of central focus of vision

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Feature detectors

Nerve cells in the brain that respond to the features like shape, angle, or movement.

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Trichromatic theory

Implies that the retina has three types of color receptors, red, green, and blue

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Cochlea

Snail-shaped tube in the inner ear that contain the hair cell receptors for hearing

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Place Theory

Assumes we hear pitch based on the place along the cochlea that is stimulated

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Hue

The color we see depends on the wavelength of light

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Intensity

The amplitude of the wave of light determines the brightness of the color we see

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Kinesthetic Sense

Our sense of body position that is communicated to our brain from our bones and joints

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Absolute Threshold

The minimum amount of stimulation necessary to detect a particular light, sound, pressure, taste, or odor 50 percent of the time

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Difference Threshold

Also called just noticeable difference (jnd). The minimum difference a person can detect between two stimuli 50 percent of the time

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Bottom-up processing

Analysis of sensory information that begins with our sensory receptors (details) and works its way up to the brain's integration of the sensory information

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Weber's Law

The principle related to just noticeable difference that in order for two stimuli to be perceived as different they must differ by a constant percentage, not a constant amount

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Similarity

Grouping principle that says we group similar objects together

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Monocular cues

Depth cues like interposition and linear perspective that can be detected by either eye (or both).

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Binocular cues

Depth cues like retinal disparity that require the use of both eyes

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Vestibular System

Sensory information about motion, equilibrium, and spatial orientation is provided by the vestibular system, which in each ear includes the utricle, saccule, and three semicircular canals.