Flashcards in Unit One: Political Parties Deck (12)
Define a political party
A political party is an organisation whose members share a common ideology and policies, and come together to seek election to political office.
What are McNaughtons main features of political parties
They have to be organised to carry out a myriad of functions
They have to develop policies and programmes to present to the electorate
They aim to secure government office as their primary goal
They have to have strategies for winning public support such as using the media
When in opposition parties must seek suitable candidates
The greens apart parties needs to have a strong and effective Leader
Most parties contain factions of some sort like the Conservative Eurosceptic and Europhobes
Different party systems
The single party system – in the system only one party may put forward candidates for election. This can be seen in 1930s Germany, and in China where there is the communist party of China
The two party system – multiple parties may put forward candidates for election however two parties are likely to contest the government office. This is traditionally seen in the UK between labour and conservatives
The dominant party system – multiple parties may put forward candidates for an election however only one party is likely to win. this can be seen with in Japan where the Liberal Democrats one between 1950 and 1990.
The multi-party system - Multiple parties put forward candidates for election and all have equal chances of winning a position within government; this typically forms a coalition. This can be seen in the Welsh assembly, Italy and Belgium. This is typically a product of proportional representation.
What are the functions of political parties
Fairclough claims there are five functions
Representing the view of their members
Enabling individuals to participate at all levels
Provides future leaders with a Political apprenticeship
Helps formulate policy before appearing in the manifesto
Provide stable government.
McNaughton added two more:
Mobilise popular consent for the political system
At election time provide the majority of Candidates.
What are the origins of the conservative party
The party has roots in the 19th century when Sir Robert Peel outlined the core values and beliefs of his party in the Tamworth manifesto of 1834
What is the conservative party ideology
One nation Tories. The most of the 20th century the Tories were truly conservative ideologically i.e. rooted in pragmatism and a belief in Gradual improvements founded on experience and existing institutions
Thatcherism - The late 70s and 80s saw the rise of a new form of libertarianism labelled the new right. New right Conservatives combined a belief in the free market, reduced taxation and deregulation with the support for traditional Conservative family values and strongly authoritarian government.
Where does Cameron lie in terms of ideology
Cameron talked about a third way in Conservative thinking. You're to describe himself with a new conservative and a liberal conservative. He sought to shift the party away from those areas where the party was divided and unpopular to make it more electable. Nevertheless, Cameron still wants to reduce taxes in public spending, deregulate industry, restrict immigration, oppose the Europe and the European constitution and Remain tough on law and order.
What are the origins of the Labour party
A Socialist group founded by workers such as Kier hardie In 1900.
The Labour Party came to power in 1945, and introduced nationalisation, the NHS and other aspects of the welfare state. It lost to the Tories after they developed consensus politics. They lost in 1979, and went to the far left under Michael foot. The centralised slightly with kinnock, but changed rapidly with Blair to form new labour
Outline the features of new labour
Far more egalitarian. Not just concerned with the workers, outlined in the reform of clause IV.
It accepted free trade, and privatisation. It introduced modernisation through a series of constitutional reforms, such a devolution.
Origins of the liberal democrats
Formed in 1988 when the liberals and social democrats coalesced. Typically old liberalism
Is there a a place more modern liberalism?
The run up to the 2010 election has shown that there is still a place for the liberal ideas in the 21st century. The Liberal Democrats clearly have a set of policies very different to the labour and conservative e.g. currently doing policies Ari electron Constitutional reform, the defence of civil liberties, the policy of progressive taxation, and more relaxed policy towards immigrants and opposition to renewing Trident are all very distinctive