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Flashcards in URINARY Deck (12)
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1

Level of left kidney

11th rib

2

Level of right kidney

11th Intercostal space
(11th ICS)

3

Outer layer of kidney

Dense fibrous capsule

4

What surrounds kidneys?

Fascial pouch / Renal fascia which contains peri-renal adipose tissue

5

Which kidney is higher/lower?

Right kidney is slightly lower than left

6

What level does the hilum of the kidneys lie at?

L1

7

What are the anterior relations of the right and left kidney?

Right: liver, hepatic flexure and the hilum is behind the 2nd part of the duodenum
Left: stomach, pancreas, spleen and splenic flexure

8

How is urine transported in the ureters?

Peristalsis of smooth muscle walls

9

What are the 3 sites of ureteric constriction?

What is a constriction?

Pelviureteric junction
Where ureter crosses pelvic brim
Where ureter traverses bladder wall

Constrictions are sites of renal colic caused by kidney stones attempting to pass

10

What lines the bladder?

Urothelium (transitional epithelium) - 3 layered epithelium with very slow cell turnover

11

What is a characteristic of the luminal cells of the bladder?

Large luminal cells have specialised low-permeability luminal membrane which prevents dissipation of urine-plasma gradient

12

What are the two urinary sphincters? Describe them

Sphincter vesicae and sphincter urethrae

Sphincter vesicae
internal sphincter - smooth muscle
at neck of bladder
reflex opening due to bladder wall tension
relaxed by PNS
contracted by SNS

Sphincter urethrae
external sphincter - striated muscle
in perineum
tone maintained by somatic nerves in pudendal nerve (S2-4)
opened by voluntary inhibition of nerves