Volume 2 - Unit 2: Protecting Air Force Assets Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Volume 2 - Unit 2: Protecting Air Force Assets Deck (181):
1

The ______ program reduces the vulnerability of individuals and property to terrorist acts.

AT program

2

The _______ covers a wide range of areas including physical security, construction standards, and CBRN.

AT program

3

The _______ covers a wide range of areas including passive defense, operations security, counterintelligence, biometrics and forensics exploitation.

AT program

4

The _________ provide procedures for collecting and disseminating timely terrorist threat information, guide development and support the implementation of comprehensive AT plans.

AT risk management guidance and procedures

5

The _______ ensures AT training and exercises are provided for all Air Force members.

AT risk management guidance and procedures

6

The _________ provides guidance for allocation and application of AT resources.

AT risk management guidance and procedures

7

The _______ establishes procedures for comprehensive AT program reviews.

AT risk management guidance and procedures

8

AT is a _______ level responsibility.

command

9

Is AT integrated into every unit mission?

yes

10

Commanders and equivalents at ______ levels are responsible for and have the authority to enforce appropriate AT standards and measures.

all

11

The next level up the chain of command must be notified of any AT risk that cannot be:

controlled to an acceptable level within a commander's resources

12

If a commander notifies the next level up that AT risk cannot be controlled to an acceptable level within the commander's resources, who is responsible for mitigating or accepting responsibility for AT risks?

the command level receiving the notification

13

Terrorism involves a criminal act, often symbolic in nature, intended to influence an audience beyond:

the immediate victims

14

Individuals or well-organized groups may use terrorism to reach their goals when:

other means have failed

15

History has shown that terrorism is a weapon of the:

weak

16

What are the three categories of terrorists?

1. non state supported
2. state supported
3. state directed

17

This is a terrorist group that generally operates autonomously, receiving no significant support from any government.

non state supported

18

This terrorist group is difficult to detect, control and eradicate.

non state supported

19

This terrorist group operates without many of the advantages afforded to other categories of terrorist groups.

non state supported

20

This is a terrorist group that generally operates independently of, but receives support from, one or more governments.

state supported

21

This terrorist group receives a wide range of assistance from their patrons.

state supported

22

Examples of assistance provided to this terrorist group include sanctuary acknowledged by the state with strict limitations imposed on the group’s activities while in sanctuary.

state supported

23

Full support to this terrorist group can include state-supported training facilities, special warfare instruction by military or intelligence service instructors, sanctuaries approaching resort-like accommodations, logistic and medical support, intelligence support, and direct financial aid.

state supported

24

These terrorist groups may be difficult to distinguish between the terrorists and a government.

state directed

25

With these terrorist groups, certain states are going
beyond the provision of support and are actively engaged in the organization and direction of terrorist activities.

state directed

26

These states have furnished leadership and direction to terrorist groups. (3)

1. Syria
2. Iraq (before the war)
3. N. Korea

27

Syria, Iraq (before the war), Iran, and North Korea have been publicly identified as states that have furnished leadership and direction to terrorist groups. Those terrorist groups are categorized as:

state directed

28

This terrorist group is more disciplined. has military like organization, resulting in better planning and execution of terrorist acts.

state directed

29

The traditional building block that forms terrorist groups has been the:

clandestine cell

30

The number of cells and overall structure of a terrorist group are influenced by the:

popular support in the area where the group operates

31

If a terrorist group has considerable support, it may contain ____ members.

thousands

32

If a terrorist group lacks popular support, it may consist of _____.

a single cell

33

The typical organization of a terrorist group consists of: (4)

1. hardcore leadership
2. active cadre
3. active support
4. passive support

34

This group comprises the “soldiers” of the terrorist group.

active cadre

35

These members of a terrorist group build and deliver bombs, commit armed assaults, and take other criminal actions.

active cadre

36

The ________ individuals of a terrorist group may include deranged, sociopathic, or psychopathic
individuals.

active cadre

37

While “crazies” may from time to time achieve notoriety and prominence within the terrorist group, their unstable and idiosyncratic behavior usually prevents them from achieving and sustaining themselves in a leadership role for a long period. This describes _______ members of a terrorist group.

active cadre

38

________ members of a terrorist group may sometimes splinter away from the group to form their own.

active cadre

39

Individuals at this level may not consider themselves as members of the terrorist group.

active support

40

_______ individuals in a terrorist group provide money and other resources to causes linked to terrorist groups.

active support

41

_______ individuals in a terrorist group provide logistical or technical assistance to the terrorist groups.

active support

42

_______ individuals in a terrorist group may play minor roles in mission such as acting as a tail or spotter during a targeting effort.

active support

43

_______ individuals in a terrorist group acknowledge the presence of terrorist group members or activities in their homes or neighborhoods and actively choose to ignore them.

passive support

44

_______ individuals in a terrorist group look the other way so they do not need to acknowledge their role or complicity in the consequences of a terrorist act.

passive support

45

A very large factor in determining the quality of training of a terrorist group is:

the knowledge and support the group has from the government

46

Which terrorists receive the best training?

the ones that receive training away from their homeland in countries known to be sympathetic to terrorist activities

47

When are terrorist team members brought together?

only at the final rehearsal, just before they depart for the target site

48

Reconnaissance for a terrorist group is usually conducted by a:

special intelligence member or element tasked only for that role

49

Common to every definition of terrorism is:

violent activity

50

The tactic used most commonly by terrorist groups is:

bombing

51

_____ is popular with terrorists because it is inexpensive, easy to do, adaptable and difficult to detect.

bombing

52

The increase in the number of bombings and the use of more sophisticated explosive devices caused the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Explosive Ordnance Disposal Standardization Committee to classify all terrorist bombs as:

IEDs

53

Why did NATO classify all terrorist bombs as IEDs?

to afford them the special treatment given by (EOD) personnel to that classification of bomb

54

IEDs are further classified by their: (3)

1. delivery means
2. activation means
3. usage

55

Whatever the type of IED, terrorists often use it merely to:

establish credibility

56

The right proportion of hoaxes to live IEDs can:

keep security forces tied up

57

The right proportion of hoaxes to live IEDs can keep security forces tied up and guessing for a long time. It also tends to:

create panic and fear in the populace

58

Although not a popular tactic among terrorists, ______ has the advantage of low risk to the perpetrator and requires only a low level of technical knowledge.

arson

59

_____ has been used to destroy or disrupt such targets as public utilities, political headquarters, and, more commonly, economic-industrial targets, such as shops, factories, and hotels.

arson

60

The most popular method of setting fires/arson is:

time delayed incendiary device

61

The most popular method of setting fires is with a time-delayed incendiary
device, often carried in a: (4)

1. cigarette pack
2. cassette tape container
3. radios
4. cell phones

62

_____ and _______ became very popular with terrorists during the 1960s and early 1970s.

hijackings and skyjackings

63

_______ is sometimes employed as a means of escape.

hijacking

64

________ is usually carried out to produce a spectacular hostage situation.

hijacking

65

_______ is the oldest terrorist tactic and is still widely used today.

Assassination

66

What are the typical terrorist assassination targets? (3)

1. government officials
2. corporate executives
3. police/security officials

67

What is the difference between a kidnaping and a hostage taking?

kidnapper - usually is someone who confines the victim in a secret hideaway and makes material demands

hostage taker - confronts authorities and openly holds victims for ransom

68

Who makes demands that are more than just material in nature: kidnapper or hostage taker?

hostage taker

69

Political concessions are frequently demanded in exchange for the lives of _____.

hostages

70

Why do terrorists take hostages? (3)

1. attracts media
2. live hostages increase drama - get more concessions
3. hostages are something to bargain with

71

This is similar to the hostage situation, but the ______ usually involves a building or object that has value in the eyes of the audience.

seizure

72

False alarms employed by terrorists have the effect of:

dulling effectiveness of security personnel

73

The objective in most _______ is to show how vulnerable society is to
terrorism.

sabotage incidents

74

__________ are more vulnerable to sabotage than less highly developed societies.

Industrialized societies

75

In assessing the terrorist threat to US personnel and interests, DOD intelligence agencies use a ________ to describe the severity of the threat.

four step scale

76

Who establishes terrorist threat levels? (2)

1. DIA
2. geographical commanders in charge (CINCs)

77

Terrorist threat levels established by the DIA and geographical commanders in charge (CINCs) only apply to

assessments of the terrorist threat to DOD interests

78

Which terrorist threat level: Anti-US terrorists are operationally active and use large casualty-producing attacks (i.e., weapons of mass destruction or WMD) as their preferred method of operation.

high

79

Which terrorist threat level: There is a substantial DOD presence and the operating environment favors the terrorist.

high

80

Which terrorist threat level: Anti-US terrorists are present and attack personnel as their preferred method of operation.

significant

81

Which terrorist threat level: Group uses large casualty-producing attacks (WMD) as their preferred method, but has limited operational activity

significant

82

Which terrorist threat level: The operating environment is neutral.

significant

83

Which terrorist threat level: Terrorists are present, but there are no indications of anti-US activity.

moderate

84

Which terrorist threat level: The operating environment favors the HN/US.

moderate

85

Which terrorist threat level: No group is detected or the group activity is non-threatening.

low

86

What are the terrorist threat level factors?

1. operational capability
2. intentions
3. activity
4. operating environment

87

This factor focuses on the attack methods used by the group and other measures that enhance its effectiveness, such as state sponsorship and ingenious use of technology.

operational capability

88

The key element to this factor is whether the group has the capability and willingness to conduct large casualty producing attacks.

operational capability

89

The ability to operate on a regional or transnational basis and the overall professionalism of the group is also assessed in this factor.

operational capability

90

Groups that selectively assassinate individuals or conduct late-night bombings causing limited property damage pose a:

decreasing threat

91

This factor is the stated desire or history of terrorist attacks against US interests.

intentions

92

Recent substantial attacks in the country is taken into account in this factor.

intentions

93

If the group is transnational is taken into account in this factor.

intentions

94

The conduct of operations in other countries is taken into account in this factor.

intentions

95

The basis of the group ideology, whether the group is more focused on the HN rather than US
interests, is the other key component of this factor.

intentions

96

If the group will react to high-profile US-led international events, such as intervention in the Balkans, is also considered and rated in this factor.

intentions

97

This factor is an assessment of the actions the group is conducting and whether that activity is focused on serious preparations for an attack.

activity

98

The highest threat is credible indications of US targeting including the movement of key operatives, final intelligence collection, and movement of weapons to the target vicinity. Which factor?

activity

99

Less threatening actions are contingency planning, training, and logistical support. Which factor?

activity

100

Activities that would make the group less likely to attack, such as robust fund raising or effective safe haven are considered in this factor.

activity

101

If the group was recently disrupted due to arrests or strikes on training camps, the threats will be ______ in the short term.

reduced

102

This factor rates how the overall environment influences the ability, opportunity, and motivation to attack DOD interests in a given location.

operating environment

103

Three important elements of the operating environment factor is the:

1. capability of the HN to combat terrorism
2. degree of HN cooperation with US
3. quality of reporting on terrorist groups in the country

104

A key element of this factor is whether there is a DOD presence and its type, size, location and political sensitivity.

operating environment

105

This factor considers if the group is focused on the DOD as its primary target for anti US attacks.

operating environment

106

This factor considers the overall political, economic, and military stability of the country and its effect on the ability of a group to attack.

operating environment

107

Can the DIA/geographical CINC assign different terrorist threat levels to the same country?

yes

108

Threat assessments provide information to assist commanders in determining the appropriate:

FPCONs

109

FPCON declarations remain the exclusive responsibility of:

commanders

110

Are threat levels tied to FPCONs in any way?

no

111

DOD designated
high physical threat countries pertain exclusively to the:

DOD travel security policy

112

Agents, sympathizers, partisans, and terrorists are in which threat level?

1

113

Small tactical units, unconventional warfare forces, and guerrillas are in which threat level?

2

114

Large tactical force operations, including airborne, heliborne, and major air operations are in which threat level?

3

115

Unit, base, and base cluster self- defense measures are response measures for which threat level?

1

116

Self-defense measures and response forces with supporting fire are response measures for which threat level?

2

117

Timely commitment of tactical combat force are response measures for which threat level?

3

118

This threat level is considered a peacetime threat that increases in frequency and transitions to a wartime threat before the beginning of open hostilities and with a rise in hostilities.

1

119

Who controls agent activities? (2)

1, combined US/HN effort during wartime
2. may be a function of only HN during peacetime

120

Active agent and activated sleeper agent cells and networks could support:

enemy actions in the rear area

121

Agents primarily function as _____ but can also act as ___(3)_____.

1. intelligence collectors
2. saboteurs
3. create civil unrest
4. terrorist advisors

122

While they are not a part of any organized military activity, these people present a threat to military personnel and facilities in the rear area.

sympathizers

123

These people may be receptive to recruitment by agents, or they may act alone or in collaboration with other _____.

sympathizers

124

This group's activities are usually confined to random acts against targets of opportunity.

sympathizers

125

Isolated radar sites or remote communications facilities are probable targets for this group.

sympathizers

126

When possible, _______
avoid well-protected targets.

sympathizers

127

__________ likely arm themselves with military weapons they can buy, steal, or manufacture.

sympathizers

128

________ are capable of arson, sabotage, or theft of military supplies and equipment, but, most likely, they limit their activities to agitation and propaganda activities.

sympathizers

129

_________ groups operate in isolated areas in small numbers.

Partisan (guerrilla)

130

_________ avoid
open terrain and areas occupied by enemy troops, but keep constant surveillance over enemy activities

partisans

131

Initially, agents or special operations forces lead these groups.

partisans

132

________ conduct seemingly random sabotage, disrupt lines of communications, and hinder military operations.

partisans

133

What reason do partisans usually fight for?

overthrow of the current government

134

Missions for these forces might include disruption of command and control facilities, sabotage, destruction of supplies, time-limited interdiction of lines of communication, and preparation of terrain or facilities for larger force incursions.

level 2 threats

135

Nuclear weapons-related facilities are expected to be their primary targets.

level 2 threats

136

These forces might also be employed to reconnoiter possible landing sites for
large forces.

level 2 threats

137

These forces might also be employed to assess defensive readiness in the rear area.

level 2 threats

138

These forces might also be employed to discover opponents’ positions.

level 2 threats

139

These forces might also be employed to destroy key positions, such as radar locations and road junctions.

level 2 threats

140

These forces may be dropped in company- or larger-size units to destroy alert and non-alert aircraft and support equipment vital to air operations.

level 2 threats

141

This group may constitute a major direct landing threat against key rear area targets, such as air base.

level 2 threats

142

Level 3 threats may be dropped up to ______ km beyond the front line.

300

143

Missions for these forces may include neutralizing special weapons delivery and storage facilities, and command and control headquarters; seizing bridgeheads; river crossing sites; airfields; road junctions; and key terrain on main avenues of approach into the enemy’s rear area.

level 3 threats

144

A potential mission for larger airborne forces may include establishing a
second battlefront deep in the rear of the theater.

level 3 threats

145

Airborne forces are equipped with armored combat vehicles, mortars, artillery, rocket launchers, portable surface-to-air missiles, and antiaircraft guns.

level 3 threats

146

Do level 3 threats generally include dedicated airmobile troops?

no

147

This threat level uses battalion sized units.

3

148

Threat level 3 forces can conduct helicopter missions with insertions to a depth of:

50km

149

Targets for level 3 helicopter insertions are: (4)

1. nuclear weapon storage sites
2. launch systems
3. early warning systems
4. C2 HQ

150

In a major battle involving a numerically superior threat, the attacking enemy force may be able to push elements of the defending force back into the defending force’s rear area.

breakthrough forces

151

If a breakthrough attack occurs, US/HN forces would:

be re-shifted for a counterattack or defensive repositioning

US/HN forces in the rear would fight the enemy forces until the repositioning occurred

152

_______ includes radio interception, direction finding, jamming, and deception means.

Radio electronic combat

153

__________ attempt to locate, disrupt, or destroy opposing communications, while protecting their own signal systems.

Electronic combat operations

154

_________ conserve the Air Force’s fighting potential by safeguarding its forces and mission capability through the achievement of predetermined effects.

Force protection (FP) efforts

155

What are the force protection effects? (5)

1. deter
2. detect
3. preempt
4. negate
5. mitigate

156

In ________ measures are developed to discourage adversarial actions.

deter

157

In ______ measures should be developed to identify the presence of an object or an event of possible military interest, whether a threat or hazard.

detect

158

________ may arise through observation of the operational area or through deductions made following an analysis of the operational area.

detection

159

Once conclusive evidence indicating an imminent enemy attack is determined, actions should be initiated to rapidly respond and establish or gain a position of advantage to eliminate the threat.

preempt

160

Essential to effective _________ operations is an accurate estimate of the adversary’s capabilities and vulnerabilities.

preemptive

161

Every intelligence and counterintelligence resource available should be used to determine enemy capabilities, intentions, and probable courses of action.

preempt

162

In _______ measures should be taken to render a threat or hazard incapable of interfering with Air Force operations.

negate

163

This includes the effective employment of coordinated and synchronized offensive and defensive measures and measures to counteract hazards.

negate

164

If actions to negate are unsuccessful, measures should be taken to minimize enemy success and reduce the consequence or severity of the adversary’s actions.

mitigate

165

In ________ measures should be taken to reduce the consequences of any hazard affecting operations.

mitigate

166

The Air Force denies adversary information through a variety of ________ defense FP measures.

passive

167

Protecting sensitive information is the _____ to FP countermeasure planning.

key

168

These are activities conducted to detect, deter, and neutralize adversary
intelligence gathering.

counterespionage programs

169

These programs also consist of independent offensive operations to engage adversarial HUMINT capabilities to deny the adversary’s intelligence objectives or influence the adversary’s understanding of the environment.

counterespionage programs

170

These surveys are the means by which adversary technical intelligence gathering capabilities are detected and neutralized.

Technical security countermeasure surveys

171

These contain interdisciplinary evaluations of physical security, access control, and technical security, and the identification of vulnerabilities specific to those disciplines.

Technical security countermeasure surveys

172

These surveys also identify clandestine technical intelligence collection means to be neutralized or exploited.

Technical security countermeasure surveys

173

These assessments identify vulnerabilities associated with OPSEC and information security (INFOSEC).

Operations and information security vulnerability assessments

174

These assessments should disclose friendly personnel vulnerabilities to adversarial intelligence gathering methods.

Operations and information security vulnerability assessments

175

________ provides guidance for classification, protection, and dissemination of classified national security information processed within any information system.

INFOSEC

176

Air Force communications and information resources are:

force multipliers

177

____________ is the capability to reduce the effectiveness of attacking forces and reconnaissance assets through the principles of hide, blend, disguise, and decoy

Camouflage, concealment, and deception (CCD)

178

To conceal an asset from visual or sensor aided acquisition.

hide

179

To combine the parts of a scene or target to render the parts indistinguishable

blend

180

To modify to prevent recognition of the true identity or character of an asset or activity.

disguise

181

To simulate an object or to use a signature generator to simulate a potential target.

decoy