Water-Soluble Vitamins Flashcards Preview

Human Nutrition > Water-Soluble Vitamins > Flashcards

Flashcards in Water-Soluble Vitamins Deck (19):
1

overview

organic/natural

no energy content

essential in small amounts

required for biological processes

deficiency is reversible

2

bioavailability

rate and extent to which a nutrient is absorbed and used

3

what effects bioavailability?

digestion efficiency

current vitamin status and stores

other foods eaten at the same time

preparation

natural vs. synthetic

4

do we store excess water-soluble vitamins?

no, they go into the blood where the kidneys excrete excess in urine

higher risk of deficiency because not stored in body

5

precursors

compounds that can be converted into active vitamins

6

B vitamins

8 that are water-soluble

all part of an enzyme helper

7

coenzyme

small molecule that works with an enzyme to promote the enzyme's activity

8

function of B vitamins

release energy from glucose, amino acids, or fats

thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid

9

B6 function

assists enzymes that metabolize amino acids

cell synthesis

10

vitamin B deficiencies

usually deficient in more than just 1 B vitamin except:

thiamin: beriberi

niacin: pellegra

deficiency is unlikely, except with elderly, poor, illness, alcoholics

11

refined grain

only endosperm used

B vitamin enriched

12

fortification

addition of nutrients to a food that was not originally present or in low amounts

used to correct or prevent widespread nutrient deficiency, balance total nutrient profile of a food, or restore nutrients lost in processing

13

enrichment

addition of nutrients to a food to meet a standard

for bread or cereal: 5 nutrients are added thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, iron

14

iron deficiency anemia

#1 deficiency in the world and USA

15

beriberi

thiamin deficiency disease

loss of sensation in the hands and feet, muscular weakness, advancing paralysis, and abnormal heart action

16

pellegra

niacin deficiency disease

4 D's

diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death

17

collagen

protein of connective tissue

18

megadose

10-30x the RDI

19

gout

metabolic disease where uric acid crystals precipitate in joints