Flashcards in Week 2: Renal and muscle regulation of K+ balance Deck (12):
Describe the K+ distribution in ECF vs. ICF and the role of Na/K ATPase and pH in influencing the distribution.
-98% ICF (mainly muscles) and 2% ECF
-Na/K ATPase maintains large concentration difference
Compare effects of potassium rich meal, insulin, epinephrine, and potassium deprivation on K+ transport into muscle ICF?
-Potassium rich meal: stimulates insulin secretion from pancreas
-insulin: stimulates K+ uptake into cell by increasing Na/K ATPase activity
-epinephrine: a-adrenoceptors releases K+ from cells, stimulation of b2-adrenceptors promotes K+ uptake by cells
-Catecholamines: exercise increases K+ in EF, needs to be cleared back into ICF. Catecholamines can activate Na/K ATPase during exercise, and exercising muscles can adapt to release less K+ as cell ATP falls
-low K+: decrease in number of Na/K ATPase muscle cells, less K+ pumped in. Less K+ secretion by distal nephron. Buffers fall in plasma K+.
How do changes in acid-base balance alter plasma [K+}?
--->Increases plasma [K+]. Reduced pH promotes movement of H+ into cells and movement of K+ out to maintain electro neutrality. H+ displaces K+'s assoc. with - charged proteins inside cell. Acidosis also inhibits Na/K ATPase and NK2Cl symporter.
--->chronic: decreases plasma K+. inhibit proximal Na, Cl, water reabsorption. increase flow rate to distal nephron, decreased tubular fluid K+, increase K secretion, excretion
-Decreases plasma [K+]. As H+ moves out of the cell, K+ moves in. Increased ICF[K+] increases gradient for K+ secretion and excretion-->hypokalemia
What are factors that alter plasma [K+] that aren't involved in regulation?
-cell lysis: burns, trauma. causes release of intracellular K+.
-Exercise: transient hyperkalemia. exercise increases K+ in EF, needs to be cleared back into ICF. Catecholamines can activate Na/K ATPase during exercise, and exercising muscles can adapt to release less K+ as cell ATP falls
Describe handling of K+ along proximal tubule. and loop of Henle.
-PT: reabsorbs 2/3 of filter K+
-Loop of Henle: ~20% filtered load reabsorbed via apical NaK2Cl in TALH. Those most of this is recycled via apical K+ channels
Describe cellular mechanism of K+ secretion in the distal tubule and collecting duct.
1. Na/K ATPase uptakes K+ from blood across basolateral membrane
2. creates high [K+] intracellularly, driving force for K+ to excite across apical membrane through K+ channels (ROM K).
3. Permeability of K+ in apical membrane greater than asolateral
4. K secretion driven by ENaC mediated Na reabsorption (Na from tubule lumen into cell, leaves to blood via Na/K ATPase)
1. Apical H+/K+ATPase may facilitate K+ uptake
2. electrochemical potential favors secretion, net absorption must be ACTIVE
3. H+-ATPase for acid base
4. flow sensitive K channels- activity will increase if there is less Na reabsorbed before CD
How does K+ excretion/reabsorption in CD vary with low, normal, and high K+ diet? Describe cellular mechanisms behind these changes.
1. Normal: Net Secretion
-~20% leaves CD
-ROM K channels insert into apical membrane for secretion in CD
2. Low: net reabsorption
-1% leaves CD, 99% filtered load reabsorbed
-ROM K channels retract out of apical membrane in principal cells but aren't degraded. Ready to move back after eating K+ rich meal
-decreased apical K+ channel activity (K+ out) and increased HK-ATPase activity in intercalated cells (K+ in)
3. High: Net Secretion
-up to 80% leaves CD
-ROM K channels insert into apical membrane in CD
-tissue kallekrein secreted from CT cells inactivates HK ATPase (prevents K+ coming in from tubule lumen on apical side)
What are luminal factors affecting potassium transport in cortical collecting tubule and ducts?
FAVOR SECRETION INTO TUBULE FLUID
-high ICF [K+] or low tubule fluid [K+]: increases gradient
-high [Na+] in TF: increases reabsorption by ENaC, increases electrochemical gradient
-high Na deliver in TF by increasing flow
-high [HCO3-] in TF: increases electrochemical driving force for K+ since HCO3- is poorly reabsorbed anion in TF
-low [Cl-] in TF: assoc. with increase in poorly reabsorbed anions in TF
DOESN'T FAVOR SECRETION
-ENaC inhibitors: less Na+ reabsorbed decreases electrochemical gradient. Can lead to hyperkalemia
What are peritubular factors that affect potassium transport in cortical collecting tubule and ducts?
FAVOR SECRETION INTO TUBULE FLUID
-high ECF [K+] -->high ICF[K+] : hyperkalemia stimulates Na/K ATPase, increases K uptake, raises ICF [K+]. Increases gradient for K+ secretion. high ECF [K+] also stimulates aldosterone secretion
-alkalemia--> high ICF [K+], increases gradient driving secretion
DOESN'T FAVOR SECRETION
-low ECF[K+] --> low ICF[K+] : decreases gradient driving K secretion into TF. Lower ECF [K+] also increases HK ATPase
How do diuretics lead to more K+ secretion?
-diuretics that act before CT block sodium transporters and increase volume flow to the collecting tubules
-increase Na+ deliver leads to increased Na+ reabsorption via ENaC, which is associated with increased K+ and H+ secretion through ROM K channels and H-ATPase.
Describe effect of aldosterone on K+ secretion.
-decreased ECF volume and increased plasma [K+] lead to aldosterone production which has the following effects.
1. Increases Na/K ATPase on basolateral membrane
2. Increases ENaC activity on apical membrane.
These drive K+ and H+ secretion into tubule fluid.
-Chronically lower ECF volume with increased aldosterone can lead to hypokalemia and alkalosis known as contraction alkalosis.
-acute increase in aldosterone levels don't increase K+ excretion b/c aldosterone stimulates Na+ and water reabsorption, decreasing tubular flow