04 | Neurotransmitters in the CNS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 04 | Neurotransmitters in the CNS Deck (55):
1

Components of v-SNARE

- Synaptobrevin
- Synaptotagmin

2

Components of t-SNARE

- Syntaxin
- SNAP-25

3

Which component is SNARE is responsible for sensing Ca?

Synaptotagmin

4

Munc-18 interacts with which SNARE component?

Syntaxin

5

What is "complexin"?

regulatory protein that stabilizes the interaction between SNARE proteins

6

How close does Ca have to be to vesicles in order to facilitate release?

7

How much slower is the RP compared to RRP?

10x slower

8

3 ways to remove NT from synaptic cleft

1) Diffusion
2) Enzymatic degradation
3) Reuptake

9

AChE is found pre- or post-synaptically?

post

10

AChE catalyzes ACh ->

acetate + choline

11

Which enzyme does Alzheimer's affect? What does it do?

Decrease levels of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Responsible for the last step of ACh synthesis.

12

Medication for Alzheimer's involve...

inhibition of AChE

13

SERTs are located pre- or post-synaptically?

pre

14

Which drug preferentially targets SERTs?

Ecstasy/MDMA

15

Which drug preferentially targets DATs?

Cocaine

16

Effect of Ecstasy/MDMA?

- Increase 5-HT levels (specific effect depends on area of brain)
- Stop axon growth and kill off axons.

17

Which transporters/NT does cocaine effect?

SERTs, DATs, catecholamines (NE)

18

What is given to treat mood/behaviour disorders?

SSRIs

19

What are dietary ways to get glutamate?

Get glutaMINE through plant and animal proteins. This gets converted into glutamate.

20

How many types of ionotropic receptors does glutamate have? What are they?

1) AMPA
2) NMDA
3) Kainate

21

How many subunits do ionotropic glutamate receptors have?

4

22

How many types of mGluRs? How are they categorized?

8 types, categorized into 3 groups
Group I: 1, 5
Group II: 2, 3
Group III: 4, 6, 7. 8

23

What's unique about the AMPA-R? What is an application of this?

It's mobile.
LTP/LTD.

24

Subunits of AMPA-R

GluA1-4

25

co-agonists used by NMDA-R

glycine or D-serine

26

Coincidence detection by NMDA-R uses...

1) Glu binds
2) Depolarization (Mg block release)

27

Additional binding sites on NMDA-R

- PCP
- Ketamine

Both are non-competitive antagonists

28

Subunits of NMDA-R

GluN1-3

29

Group I mGluR

- postsynaptic (major)
- Gq pathway

30

Group II mGluR

- presynaptic
- Go pathway

31

Group II mGluR

- postsynaptic (minor)
- Gi pathway

32

Which area in the brain is mostly made up of GABAnergic neurons?

NAc

33

Types of GABA receptors

1) GABA(A) - ionotropic (Cl channel)
2) GABA(B) - metabotropic (open K channel & inhibit Ca channel)

34

Additional binding sites for GABA(A)-R

- BDZs and bartituates
- Steroids
- Alcohol

All are non-competitive agonists

35

How many subunits does GABA(A)-R have?

5 (combination of 19 Greek letters)

36

How many subunits does GABA(B)-R have?

2 (B1 and B2)
Forms dimer
B1 - bind GABA
B2- activate G-protein

37

Cholinergic innervation in the brain (anatomy)

- Septal nuclei
- Nucleus basalis
- Striatal interneurons (caudate putamen, NAc)
- PPT/LDT (dorsalateral pons)

38

How many subunits does nAChRs have?

5

39

How many types of mAChRs are there? How are they grouped?

5 (M1-M5)
M1, 3, 5 link to Gq
M2, 4 link to Go/i

40

What are monoamines? Which examples do we focus on?

= compound with 1 amine group

Catecholamines (DA, NE)
Tryptamines (5-HT)

41

Where are DA neurons found?

VTA and substantia nigra

42

3 DA pathways

1) mesostriatal
2) mesolimbic
3) mesocortical

43

Mesostriatal tract

substantia nigra (A9) -> caudate putamen (dorsolateral striatum)
- involved in voluntary movement

44

Mesolimbic tract

VTA (A10) -> limbic system
- Reward pathway

45

Mesocortical tract

VTA (A10) -> prefrontal cortex
- reinforcement, rewards

46

How many types of receptors are there for DA? What are they?

5 (D1-5)
- metabotropic
- D1-like stimulates AC
- D2-like inhibit AC and ATP synthesis

47

Which DA-R is an autoreceptor?

D2

48

Where are NE neurons located?

LC and medulla

49

What are NE-Rs like?

- metabotropic
- inhibitory (when bound to a2)

50

Where are 5-HT neurons located?

raphe nuclei

51

What are 5-HT-Rs like?

- mostly metabotropic
- 14 types

52

Which 5-HT-R is not metabotropic?

5-HT3

53

LSD hallucinations are due to __ receptors

5-HT2A

54

Where are histamine neurons located?

TMN

55

What are histamine receptors like?

1) H1 & H2: postsynaptic, excitatory
2) H3: autoreceptor