Flashcards in 04 | Neurotransmitters in the CNS Deck (55):
Components of v-SNARE
Components of t-SNARE
Which component is SNARE is responsible for sensing Ca?
Munc-18 interacts with which SNARE component?
What is "complexin"?
regulatory protein that stabilizes the interaction between SNARE proteins
How close does Ca have to be to vesicles in order to facilitate release?
How much slower is the RP compared to RRP?
3 ways to remove NT from synaptic cleft
2) Enzymatic degradation
AChE is found pre- or post-synaptically?
AChE catalyzes ACh ->
acetate + choline
Which enzyme does Alzheimer's affect? What does it do?
Decrease levels of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Responsible for the last step of ACh synthesis.
Medication for Alzheimer's involve...
inhibition of AChE
SERTs are located pre- or post-synaptically?
Which drug preferentially targets SERTs?
Which drug preferentially targets DATs?
Effect of Ecstasy/MDMA?
- Increase 5-HT levels (specific effect depends on area of brain)
- Stop axon growth and kill off axons.
Which transporters/NT does cocaine effect?
SERTs, DATs, catecholamines (NE)
What is given to treat mood/behaviour disorders?
What are dietary ways to get glutamate?
Get glutaMINE through plant and animal proteins. This gets converted into glutamate.
How many types of ionotropic receptors does glutamate have? What are they?
How many subunits do ionotropic glutamate receptors have?
How many types of mGluRs? How are they categorized?
8 types, categorized into 3 groups
Group I: 1, 5
Group II: 2, 3
Group III: 4, 6, 7. 8
What's unique about the AMPA-R? What is an application of this?
Subunits of AMPA-R
co-agonists used by NMDA-R
glycine or D-serine
Coincidence detection by NMDA-R uses...
1) Glu binds
2) Depolarization (Mg block release)
Additional binding sites on NMDA-R
Both are non-competitive antagonists
Subunits of NMDA-R
Group I mGluR
- postsynaptic (major)
- Gq pathway
Group II mGluR
- Go pathway
Group II mGluR
- postsynaptic (minor)
- Gi pathway
Which area in the brain is mostly made up of GABAnergic neurons?
Types of GABA receptors
1) GABA(A) - ionotropic (Cl channel)
2) GABA(B) - metabotropic (open K channel & inhibit Ca channel)
Additional binding sites for GABA(A)-R
- BDZs and bartituates
All are non-competitive agonists
How many subunits does GABA(A)-R have?
5 (combination of 19 Greek letters)
How many subunits does GABA(B)-R have?
2 (B1 and B2)
B1 - bind GABA
B2- activate G-protein
Cholinergic innervation in the brain (anatomy)
- Septal nuclei
- Nucleus basalis
- Striatal interneurons (caudate putamen, NAc)
- PPT/LDT (dorsalateral pons)
How many subunits does nAChRs have?
How many types of mAChRs are there? How are they grouped?
M1, 3, 5 link to Gq
M2, 4 link to Go/i
What are monoamines? Which examples do we focus on?
= compound with 1 amine group
Catecholamines (DA, NE)
Where are DA neurons found?
VTA and substantia nigra
3 DA pathways
substantia nigra (A9) -> caudate putamen (dorsolateral striatum)
- involved in voluntary movement
VTA (A10) -> limbic system
- Reward pathway
VTA (A10) -> prefrontal cortex
- reinforcement, rewards
How many types of receptors are there for DA? What are they?
- D1-like stimulates AC
- D2-like inhibit AC and ATP synthesis
Which DA-R is an autoreceptor?
Where are NE neurons located?
LC and medulla
What are NE-Rs like?
- inhibitory (when bound to a2)
Where are 5-HT neurons located?
What are 5-HT-Rs like?
- mostly metabotropic
- 14 types
Which 5-HT-R is not metabotropic?
LSD hallucinations are due to __ receptors
Where are histamine neurons located?