05 Action Potential, synapses & transmitters Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 05 Action Potential, synapses & transmitters Deck (56)
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1

031: What is the main difference between Ionotropic receptors and Metabotropic receptors?

Metabotropic receptors have a cascade of events that take time to build up but they are going to be more wide spread and last a lot longer.

2

032: What is a SSRI?

An antidepressant that helps prolong the synapse of serotonins.

3

033: _____ is an antagonist that binds to acetylcholine receptors on skeletal muscle and paralyzes them so that they can't contract.

Curare

4

034: _____ means there is a little packet of neurotransmitters containing 10,000 molecules that get released from the synaptic vesicle.

Quanta

5

035: What happens when you have a large burst of action potential?

You will begin to release a lot of packets of neurotransmitters and you will see that the depolarization effects of that neurotransmitter on the post-synaptic cell will linger for a longer period of time.

6

037: _____ have a particularly good effect at shunting and keeping the cell from getting too over excited.

IPSP

7

038: T/F G-protein second messenger signals are fast and cannot be amplified.

False. They are slow but get amplified.

8

039: Transmitter signals can _____ and _____.

converge, diverge

9

033: What is an example of a receptor agonist?

Nicotine

10

021: T/F Gap Junctions are selective and allow ions to pass between cells directly.

False. Gap Junctions do allow ions to pass between cells directly, but they are NOT considered to be selective because they are big enough that virtually any ion can pass through.

11

021: T/F Gap Junctions are found mostly in sensory and motor neurons, but are relatively rare in adult neurons.

True

12

022: Most communication in your brain occurs via ________?

Synapses

13

022: The gap between the pre and post synaptic cells is known as the ___________ and is how many nanometers wide?

Synaptic Cleft, 15-20 nanometers wide.

14

022: What is the difference between synaptic vesicles and granules?

Synaptic vesicles contain NEUROTRANSMITTERS, while granules contain PEPTIDES.

15

022: T/F Neurotransmitters can be inhibitory or excitatory.

True

16

023: Asymmetrical synapses are also known as Type ___ synapses.

Type I

17

023: Most synapses on the cell body (soma) are _________, keeping the cell from becoming too depolarized and preventing it from firing all of the time.

Inhibitory

18

024: What are synapses in the peripheral nervous system called?

Neuromuscular Junctions (NMJ)

19

025: Dendritic _______ compartmentalize signals, improve communication between cells and become the site of the synapse.

Spines

20

025: T/F Dendritic spines can grow within a matter of seconds to minutes, and can come and go.

True

21

026: A ________ is a molecule that can bind to a neurotransmitter receptor, but itself is not a neurotransmitter. Opiates are an example of this.

Ligand

22

026: What are the three major categories of neurotransmitters?

Amino acids, Amines, and Peptides.

23

026: Acetylcholine (Ach), Dopamine, Epinephrine, and Norepinephrine are classified under which category of neurotransmitter?

Amines. (These were the first neurotransmitters to be discovered!)

24

027: Where are neurotransmitters synthesized?

ROUGH Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

25

029: T/F Autoreceptors are on the presynaptic cell and shut down the release of neurotransmitters.

True

26

028: The process in which neurotransmitters are released is called ________, while the refilling of the vesicle is called ________.

Exocytosis, Endocytosis

27

028: What are Lewy Bodies?

Abnormal aggregates of protein (plaques) that are commonly associated with dementia and Parkinson's Disease.

28

029: T/F Autoreceptors are on the Presynaptic cell and shut down the release of neurotransmitters.

True

29

030: ________ receptors open ion channels and are not very selective.

Ionotropic

30

002: What are action potentials?

Action potentials are a rapid reversal of a neuron's membrane potential.