06 - musculoskeletal system disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 06 - musculoskeletal system disease Deck (28):
1

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(digital)

1. lameness is common on dairy farms

2. usually present on what limbs?

3. many hoof diseases have multifactorial causes

2. hindlimbs

2

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(digital)

(skin disease)

(footrot)

1. opportunistic infection with what?

2. usually due to what?

1. fusobacterium necrophorum

2. poor environmental conditions (wet/mdduy) (skin immunocompromise or pathogen buildup)

(any conditions that lead to abrasion between claws increase risk of foot rot)

3

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(digital)

(skin disease)

(footrot)

1. tx with what?

1. parenteral procaine penicillin G, ceftiofur, or oxytetracycline

4

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(digital)

(skin disease)

(hairy heel warts)

1. aka what?

2. caused by what?

3. where located?

4. look how?

5. tx?

6. is it contagious?

1. digital dermatitis, papillomatous digital dermatitis

2. trepemona (bacterial, not viral)

3. interdigitial skin at heel usually

4. papillomatous, red when cleaned 

5. respond well to oxytetracycline (topical or parenteral)

6. yep

5

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(digital)

(skin disease)

(interdigital fibroma)

1. a mass of connective tissue that grows in the interdigital space

2. thought to be associated with what?

3. usually subclinical, but can cause lameness

4. tx?

2. chronic inflammation

4. excision

6

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(digital)

(hoof disease)

(laminitis)

1. rarely presents like horse with acute multi limb lameness

2. usually see with what cattle?

2. feedlot cattle on high energy rations

or following severe/acute bac infections in another organ system

7

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(digital)

(hoof disease)

(laminitis)

1. cause is multifactorial

2. what are four causes?

2. subacute rumen acidosis

toxemia (eg matitis)

environmental (impact trauma)

misshapen hooves (cause or effect of laminitis)

8

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(digital)

(hoof disease)

(sole abscess)

1. variable separation of what?

2. which on exploration tracks to what?

1. white line

2. presurrized pocket of purulent material (usually)

can also just have a pocket, have a draining tract goning somewhere, etc

9

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(digital)

(hoof disease)

(sole abscess)

1. cause is multifactorial

2. four causes?

2. misshapen hooves

subclinical laminitis

physical trauma

physical horn changes (eg maceration, bacterial decay)

10

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(digital)

(hoof disease)

(sole abscess)

1. tx?

2. prog?

1. drainage, protetcion of exposed corium by applying supportive block elevation to contralateral sound claw

parenteral abx if corium is infected

2. mostly excellent

A image thumb
11

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(digital)

(hoof disease)

(sole ulcer)

1. aka what?

2. pathognomonic location - where?

1. Rusterholtz ulcer

2. corium covering flexor tuberosity of distal phalanx

A image thumb
12

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(digital)

(hoof disease)

(sole ulcer)

1. multifactorial cause

2. what are 3?

1. subclin laminitis (pedal rotation)

2. misshapen hooves (^ pressure on heel)

3. lack of cushion on walking surface

13

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(digital)

(hoof disease)

(sole ulcer)

1. tx?

2. prog?

1. horn removal around ulcer, exposure, removal of granulation bed, application of supportive block to sound contralateral claw

2. guarded for recovery, good for imporovement

14

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(digital)

(hoof disease)

(sole ulcer)

1. complications?

1. deep digital flexor tenosynovitis and osteomyelitis

15

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(upper limb)

(hip luxation)

1. common after what in adult cows?

2. tx?

3. prog?

1. adductor muscle

2. manual reduction under heavy sedation or anesthesia preferably

3. grave; poor if reduced within several hours

16

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(upper limb)

Q image thumb

17

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(upper limb)

Q image thumb

18

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(upper limb)

(septic arthritis of calves)

1. common is cases of what?

2. Cx?

3. tx?

4. prog?

1. omphalitis (also enteritis and pneumonia)

2. polyarthritis, swelling, pain, fever, recumbency

3. broad spec abx

4. guarded if tx begins in acute stage

grave if begins in chronic stage

19

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(muscle disease)

(hypocalcemia - milk fever)

1. what breed is very susceptible?

1. Jersey

20

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(muscle disease)

(hypocalcemia - milk fever)

1. subclin changes?

2. changes with lower Ca?

3. signalment is diagnostic, usually occurs when?

1. uterine involution

rumen, abomasum contraction

2. skeletal muscle weakness, leading to recumbency

3. day before, day of, or day after calving

21

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(muscle disease)

(hypocalcemia - milk fever)

1. cause?

2. tx?

1. sudden ^ in calcium req with commencement of lactogenesis

2. calcium gluconate, IV or sq

22

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(muscle disease)

(hypocalcemia - milk fever)

1. prevention?

1. dietary acidification for the 3 weeks before calving, by feeding anionic salts -> has effect on PTH fxn -> ^  Ca uptake from bones

monitor urine pH! should be between 5.5 and 6.5  (normal is 8)

23

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(muscle disease)

(grass tetany)

1. cause?

2. why more common in adults?

3. Cx?

4. tx?

1. grazing of forages low in magnesium

(usually succulent, immature grasses, or cereal grains)

2. can't mobilize magnesium from bones

3. uncoordinated gait, recumbency, convulsions, coma

4. IV injection of magnesium borogluconate

24

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(muscle disease)

(clostridial myonecrosis)

1. often following what?

2. generally a disease of what?

3. prognosis?

1. injections or trauma

2. young stock

3. grave

25

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(muscle disease)

(clostridial myonecrosis)

(Cx)

1. inflammation of muscles - which ones usually?

1. gluteal muscles and perineal area

(sometimes with SC crepitus and skin discolorization and cooling. Signs of toxemia and shock develop quickly

26

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(muscle disease)

(clostridial myonecrosis)

(causes - give bacteria name)

1. black leg

2. malignant edema

3. major

4. minor

1. chauvoei

2. septicum

3. sordelli

4. novyi type B, perfringens type A

27

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(muscle disease)

(clostridial myonecrosis)

1. tx?

2. is there a vx?

1. parenteral or local procaine penicillin G; surgical debridement

2. yes

28

(musculoskeletal system disease)

(muscle disease)

(downer cow syndrome)

 

Q image thumb

A image thumb