1/15/16 ID 110 Exam Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1/15/16 ID 110 Exam Deck (67)
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1

Intentions of the ChooseMyPlate program

Balancing calories
Decreasing portion size
Increasing healthy foods
Increasing water consumption
Decreasing fats, Na, sugars

2

What is nutrition, the basic component of health, essential for?

Essential for:
Growth/development
Tissue repair/maintenance
Cellular metabolism
Organ function

3

What are essential nutrients? (6)

Proteins
Carbohydrates
Fats
Vitamins
Minerals
Water

4

Nutrient Density

The proportion of essential nutrients to the number of kilocalories

5

Kilocalories and nutrients in "high-nutrient dense foods" and examples

Fruits and veggies
Large # of nutrients in relation to kCals

6

Kilocalories and nutrients in "low-nutrient dense foods" and examples

Alcohol and sugar
High in kCals but nutrient poor

7

kCal to one gram of carbohydrate

1g of Carbs=4 kcal. MAIN SOURCE OF FUEL

8

"incomplete proteins"

Missing one or more of the nine indispensable amino acids

9

Example of positive nitrogen use, which comes from proteins

Growth--normal pregnancy, wound healing, vital organ functioning

10

Example of negative nitrogen use, which comes from proteins

Infection
Starvation
Fever
Burns
trauma

11

What is the most calorie-dense nutrient?

FAT! 9 kCal/g. Composed of triglycerides and fatty acids.

12

Fat-soluble vitamins

A, D, E, K

13

Water-soluble vitamins

C and B complex

14

How many minerals (inorganic elements) are essential for catalyzing biochemical reactions?

100mg or more

15

What is "DRI" and the 4 components?

Dietary Reference Intakes
EAR: estimated ave. requirement
RDA: recomm. dietary allowance
AI: adequate intake
UL: tolerable upper intake level

16

What is the EAR?

estimated average requirement
Amount of nutrient that is sufficient to maintain a body function (for 50% of pop based on age and gender)

17

What is the RDA?

recomm. dietary allowance
Average needs of 98% of pop
NOT exact needs of an individual

18

What is AI?

Adequate intake
Suggested intake for individuals based on determined estimates.
Used when not enough evidence to set RDA

19

What is the UL?

Tolerable upper intake level
Highest level that poses no risk of adverse health affects.

20

What are daily values based on?

Percentages of a 2000 kcal/day diet for children 4+ and adults

21

Where are complex carbs found?

Grains, vegetables, fruits

22

choosemyplate, where to find CARBS: for grains, veggies, fruits, dairy, protein

G: 15g per serving
V: 5g
F: 18g
D: 12g
P: 4-10g

23

What's the RDA for needed carbs for adults?

130g/day. Need to focus on fruits, veggies, whole grains!

24

What's the recommendation for simple sugar intake from WHO?

less than or equal to 10% of total kcal/day--max 12tsp or 50 g per day

25

What's the RDA for protein in adults?

0.8g of protein per kg of healthy body weight
OR: 10-15% total daily calories

26

Excess protein converted into?

Glucose or fat. Used for energy

27

Highest nutrient dense protein source?

Waterpacked tuna.
Also, beef, poultry, milk, white bread, and cheese.

28

Vegan diet

Only eat plant foods. No animal products (leather, feather pillows, cheese)

29

Fruitarian diet

Eat fruits, nuts (keep cholesterol low), honey, vegetable oils.

30

Lactovegetarian diet

Dairy included with plant products