# 1. Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in # 1. Anatomy Deck (40):
1

Name the meninges and the spaces.

-epidural space
1. dura mater
-subdural space
2. arachnoid mater
-subarachnoid space
3. pia mater

2

Describe the dura mater

-most superficial
-dense irregular CT
-tough momma

3

Describe the arachnoid mater

-middle layer
-avascular
-delicate collagen fibers and some elastic fibers

4

What is in the subarachnoid space?

cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)

5

Describe the pia mater

-innermost layer
-thin and transparent (saran wrap)
-adheres to surface of spinal cord & brain
-lots of blood vessels to supply spinal cord

6

What are denticulate ligaments?

-extensions of pia mater that suspend the spinal cord in the middle
-protect against sudden displacement

7

What is the length of the spinal cord?

from the medulla oblongata to L2 (more specifically between L1 and L2)
-newborns can extend to L3 or L4.

8

Where are the enlargements in the spinal cord?

-cervical enlargement - from C4-T1; nerves to and from the arms
-lumbar enlargement - from T9-T12; nerves to and from the legs

9

What is the conus medullaris?

-end of the spinal cord

10

What are filum terminale?

-extensions of pia mater that runs from conus medullaris to coccyx
-anchors the spinal cord to the coccyx

11

What is the cauda equina?

-the spinal nerves at the end of the spinal cord that don't exit the vertebral column when they exit the cord. (ie. the L5 spinal nerve exits the spinal cord at L2 but stays in the vertebral column until L5)
-looks like a horses tail

12

What are rootlets?

bundles of axons that come directly off the spinal cord

13

What are the protective structures of the spinal cord?

1. vertebral column
2. CSF
3. meninges

14

Which root has sensory axons?

Posterior (dorsal) root

15

Which root has motor axons?

Anterior (ventral) root

16

True or False: The posterior root contains efferent axons.

False. The posterior root (sensory axons) is afferent (going towards the spinal cord). The anterior root (motor axons) is efferent (traveling away from the spinal cord)

17

Where are sensory cell bodies located?

in the posterior (dorsal) root ganglion.

18

Where are motor cell bodies located?

in the CNS (anterior grey horn or the brain)

19

Why is white matter white?

because the bundles of axons are myelinated

20

What makes up the grey matter?

-dendrites and cell bodies of neurons
-unmyelinated axons
-neuroglia

21

What is the area of grey matter that connects the two sides called?

the grey commissure

22

What is the central canal?

a canal that runs down the center of the whole spinal cord and is filled with CSF

23

What is in the posterior grey horn?

incoming sensory axons and cell bodies of interneurons

24

What is in the anterior grey horn?

motor cell bodies

25

What is in the lateral grey horn?

autonomic cell bodies

26

Where is the lateral grey horn located?

only in the thoracic-upper lumbar region

27

What are bundles of axons in the CNS called?

tracts

28

What are bundles of axons in the PNS called?

nerves

29

What are clusters of cell bodies in the CNS called?

nuclei

30

What are clusters or cell bodies in the PNS called?

ganglion

31

What the layers of spinal nerves?

endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium

32

What is the endoneurium?

-the innermost layer of spinal nerves
-wraps individual axons

33

What is the perineurium?

-the middle layer of spinal nerves
-wraps fascicles

34

What is the epineurium?

-the outer layer of spinal nerves
-wraps entire nerve

35

What are names the of Rami?

1. posterior (dorsal) ramus
2. anterior (ventral) ramus
3. meningeal branch
4. rami communicantes

36

Where does the posterior ramus go?

to the posterior. - muscles & skin of posterior trunk

37

Where does the anterior ramus go?

to the limbs (muscles and skin), anterior and lateral trunk
-looks like a continuation of spinal nerves

38

Where does the meningeal branch go?

-back to the vertebral canal
-supplies vertebrae, vertebral ligaments, blood vessels of spinal cord & meninges.

39

Where does the rami communicantes go?

the autonomic nervous system

40

What are the blood vessels that supply nerves called?

vasa neuvorum