1: Intro to Hematology & Formed Elements Flashcards Preview

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What are the basic functions of blood?

1) Major "transportation medium"--> Blood permeates all organs and tissues
2) Homeostasis-->The quantity of EVERYTHING in the blood is regulated in some fashion
3) Buffering
4) Temperature regulation


What is the blood composition made up of?

55% plasma

45% RBCs
<1% Leukocytes & Platelets (BUFFY COAT)
***These two make up the formed elements


What is Plasma made up of?

7 % proteins
91% water
2% other solutes


How what is the breakdown for Proteins in the plasma and other solutes?

Albumin 58%
Globulins 38%
Fibrinogen 4%

Other solutes:
Ions, nutrients, waste products, gases, regulatory substance = 2%


What can blood be divided into?

1) Formed Elements
2) Plasma


What are the formed elements?

1) RBCs
2) WBC (leukocytes)
3) Platelets (thrombocytes)


What is the break down for the formed elements?

Platelets = 250-400 thousand

Leukocytes= 5-9 thousand

Erythrocytes= 4.2-5.8 million


What is the breakdown for the Leukocytes in the blood?

Neutrophils= 60-70%
Lymphocytes= 20-25%
Monocytes= 3-8%
Eosinophils= 2-4 %
Basophils= 0.5-1%


What percentage by weight makes up the blood in the human body?

8% and other fluids & tissues 92%


What does plasma contain?

1) H20
2) Solutes
3) Plasma proteins


What is serum?

Is plasma MINUS its clotting factors


What makes up the solutes in the plasma?

1) Electrolytes
2) Nutrients
3) Wastes
4) Hormones
5) Vitamins
6) Buffers
7) Gases


What is the volume of Blood in a Female vs Male?

Female: 4-5 L
Male: 5-6 L


What is the mean temperature, pH, viscosity, osmolarity, and salinity ?

temperature: 100.4 (F)
pH: 7.35- 7.45
viscosity: Whole blood = 4.5-5.5; Plasma=2.0
osmolarity: 280-296 mOsm/L
salinity: 0.9%


What is the Hematocrit, Hemoglobin, Mean RBC Count, Platelet Count, and Total WBC Count in Blood?

Hematocrit: F= 37-48% M= 45-52%
Hemoglobin: F= 12-16 g/dL M= 13-18 g/dL
Mean RBC Count: F= 4.2- 5.4 million/microL M= 4.6-6.2 mill/microL
Platelet Count: 130,000-360,000/microL
Total WBC Count: 5,000-10,000/microL


What are the changes in Hematocrit?

1) Normal
2) Anemia (low hematocrit)
3) Polycythemia (high hematocrit)


What is a blood film or peripheral blood smear? What is it used for?

-A thin layer of blood smeared on a microscope slide & stained to allow Blood cells to me examined.

-Used as a follow-up test to abnormal results on a CBC. May diagnose/ monitor conditions that affect blood cells.
***Must be examined by a trained eye for best evaluation


How do you prepare a blood smear?

1) Approach- Drop of blood
2) Adhesion
3) Advancement


What are the characteristics of Red Blood Cells?

- Rarely clump or form rows
- More or less evenly spaced and occasionally form groups of maybe 2-3 cells
-Biconcave shape (their center will look lighter than their periphery)


What are the principals functions of RBCs?

1) Solubilize
2) Exchange and carry gases
3) Buffering


What is the importance of a biconcave shape?

Increases surface area


What are Platelets?

NOT cells, but rather FRAGMENTS of megakaryocytes that break off in the bone marrow before entering the peripheral blood


What are the main functions of Platelets?

Formation of platelet plugs, which slow down or stop bleeding (depending of severity)


How do WBCs appear under microscope?

***Depends somewhat on how the stain turned out

-Some nuclei are dark and crisp and cytoplasm is well demarcated and others are less defined.


What are some characteristics of Neutrophils?

1) 3-5 Lobes connected by thin strands of chromatin
(Very characteristic nucleus )
2) EASIEST to FIND (most frequent WBC.. 60-70%)
3) Complex shape of nucleus identifies them unequivocally
4) In dark stains very small granules are be seen in the cytoplasm


What is the function of Neutrophils?

Primary defense against Bacteria and Fungi (Large numbers invade sites of infection in response to factors released by cells which reside at an infection site)


What is the pathway for Neutrophils & Phagocytosis ?

1) Microbe adheres to phagocyte
2) Phagocyte forms pseudopods that eventually engulf the particle
3) Phagocytic vesicle is fused w/ a lysosome phagolysosome
4) Microbe in fused vesicle is killed & digested within phagolysosome leaving a residual body
5) Indigestible & residual material is removed by exocytosis


How many lobes do Eosinophils have?

ONLY 2 lobes


What are some characteristics of Eosinophils?

-Cytoplasm is filled with granules
-Eosinophil = granules stain red or pink when eosin dye is used


What is the main function of Eosinophils?

Defense against parasitic infections


How many lobes do Basophils contain?

Nucleus has 2-3 lobes


What shape does the Basophil have?

Nucleus appears S shaped

-Not as well defined as Neuts or Eosinophils


Do Basophils also have granules explain?

Yes, usually stain deepish bluish or reddish-violet, but they are not as numerous as those in eosinophils.


How do Eosinophils and Basophils compare?

Eosinophils & basophils are the only cell types present in normal blood which initially may be difficult to distinguish in dark smears!


What is the function of Basophils?

-Mediate inflammatory reactions, those that causes allergy symptoms!!


What do Basophils become?

MAST CELLS after migrating to TISSUES


What do Basophil & mast cell granules store?

Lots of HISTAMINE, which causes some symptoms of an allergic reaction.


What shape does a Monocytes nucleus have?

-"Textbook" shape = C-shaped or kidney shaped nucleus!!!

-The nucleus is NOT LOBED & NOT ROUND.


Describe the nucleus of a Monocyte under a microscope

-The C-shaped nucleus may not be easy to find.
-Nuclei will vary form a peanut-to a "fat" S- shaped smears


What is the light areas of the Monocyte indicate?

-Often visible close to the concave surface of the nucleus, which is not visible close to the concave surface.
-A large Golgi Apparatus is located in the area


Does the Golgi apparatus stain well in the Monocyte?Explain

No does not stain well as the remainder of the cytoplasm and leaves a light "impression"-


What is a "negative image" ?

-The phenomenon where the Golgi does not stain well for the monocyte and the remainder of the cytoplasm & leaves a light "impression"


What are Monocytes?

They become Macrophages when the migrate to TISSUE


What is the main role of a Monocyte?

To kill intracellular microorganisms (certain bacteria, fungi) similar to Neuts ( i.e. phagocytosis)


What are characteristics of Lymphocytes?

Generally the smallest of all the WBCs
-Tad larger than RBCs
-ROUND NUCLEUS & very little Cytoplams


How do the small and large Lymphocytes appear in the blood??

-The Small lymphocytes may appear to fill the entire cell
-The Large have a wider rim of cytoplasm which surround the nucleus.

*******Very FEW, if any granules.


What are the two main types of lymphocytes ?

B and T lymphocytes (indistinguishable microscopically)


What is the function of T and B cells?

-To identify "non-self" antigens
-Generate specific responses tailored to eliminate the pathogens containing the antigens or pathogen infected cells


How do B cells respond to pathogens ?

By producing large quantities of ANTIBODIES which then attach bacteria and viruses.


How do some T cells respond to pathogens?

In response to pathogens T cells called, T HELPER CELLS (CD4+) CELLS, produce chemicals that direct the immune response while other T cells, called CYTOTOXIC CELLS or CD8+ CELLS, produce ENZYMES which induce the death of pathogens infected cells.


What follows activation of B and T lymphocytes?

B and T cells have memory "remember" the antigens they have encountered. Throughout the lifetime of an individual will remember each specific pathogen encountered, and are able to mount a strong & rapid response if the pathogens is detected again.


What are the Third Type of Lymphocyte?

The NK cells (natural killer cells), play a major role in the rejection of tumors & cells infected by viruses.


How do NK cells kill cells?

They release small cytoplasmic granules of proteins called "PERFORIN" and "GRANZYME" that cause the target cell to die.

-Necrosis and Apoptosis may follow