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Flashcards in 1 Intro to Organic Chemistry Deck (26)
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1

Aliphatic definition

Organic compounds containing C chains and branches- straight chains

2

Alicyclic/cyclic definition

Organic compounds containing C rings

3

Functional Group Definition

Atom/group of atoms responsible for most of the chemical reactions of a molecule

4

Homologous series definition

Family of compounds with
same functional group
same general formula
similar chemical properties
differ by CH2
gradual change in physical properties

5

Isomer definition

each of two or more compounds with the same formula but a different arrangement of atoms in the molecule and different properties.

6

Molecular formula and example

Formula that gives actual number of atoms of each element in one molecule e.g

C4H10

7

Empirical formula and example

Gives simplest ratio of atoms of each element in a compound e.g
C2H5

8

Structural formula and example

Shows how the atoms are joined together in a molecule e.g
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3

9

Displayed formula

Shows all bonds and atoms in a molecule

10

Skeletal formula and example

Uses lines to represent bonds- each ponit is C atom and H bonds to H atoms/ H atoms not shown unless part of functional group e.g alcohols. Other atoms e.g O, N, F, Cl, Br, I, S are shown

11

Rules for nomenclature

Funct. group indicated by suffix/prefix e.g chloroethane

Pos. of funct. group given by a number- counting from end that gives funct. group lowest number

Only include numbers if needed

When there are two or more of the same group e.g di-,tri-,tetra-,penta-,hexa- etc

If more than one funct. group, numbers separated by commas and groups listed in alphabetical order (ignoring any di,tri etc) e.g 3-bromo-1-chlorocbutane 2,2-dibromo-1-chlorobutane

Suffixes for alkenes can go in front of other suffixes e.g 2-chlorobut-3-enal

12

Do displayed, skeletal and name of (Alkane) CH3CH2CH(CH3)CH3

(Draw displayed/skeletal)
Name- 2-methylbutane

13

Do displayed, skeletal and name of (Haloalkanes) CH3CH2Br

(Draw displayed/skeletal)
Name- Bromoethane/ ethylbromide

14

Do displayed, skeletal and name of (Alkene)
CH3-CH(CH3)-C(CH3)=CH-CH3

(Draw displayed/skeletal)
Name- 2,3 dimethylpent-3-ene

15

What are nitriles?

Organic compounds that end with a carbon that is triple bonded to a nitrogen
End in nitrile

16

Amines

Organic compounds that contain NH2
End in amine

17

Carboxylic acids

Take highest priority when naming, have carboxyl group (COOH)C=O (C double bonded to one O)
I
O-H
End in oic acid

18

Ketones

Carbon double bonded to oxygen, not on either end C atom
End in one

19

Aldehydes

Has C=O on carbon 1 and that C is attached to a H. End in al

20

Alcohols

Have C attached to O-H
End in ol

21

What are structural isomers and what are they split into?

Molecules with the same molecular formula but a different structure
Chain isomerism- Carbon chain is different

Position isomerism- Functional group can be in diff positions on the carbon chain resulting in isomers

Functional group isomerism- Compounds with the same molecular formula that contain different functional groups

22

What are functional groups isomers of each other?

Aldehydes and ketones

Carboxylic acids and esters

Alkenes and cycloalkanes

23

Draw and name all the molecules with the formula C4H9Cl

1-chlorobutane,

2-chlorobutane,

1-chloro-2-methylpropane

2-chloro-2-methylpropane

24

What is the π bond? How are they formed?

There are two covalent bonds btw the two C atoms

1- Bond 1- σ covalent bond (e-s brw two C atoms)

2- Bond-2 π covalent bond (e-s can be anywhere in 'bubble above or below) (below and above plane of the 6 central atoms- formed from overlap of p orbitals on C atoms)

25

Diff btw structural and steroisomerism- give examples

Structural isomers- molecules with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae

e.g Chain- diff carbon chain

Pos.- diff pos. of funct grp

Funct grp- diff funct grp

Stereoisomcrism- molecules have same struct and molecular formula but diff arrangement of atoms in space.

• E-Z isomerism- caused by molecs w/ C=C and diff grps attached to each C of C=C

• optical isomerism. - caused by C atoms having four diff grps attached leading to molecs that are non superimposable mirror images of each other

26

Everything about E-Z stereoisomerism- why it happens, rules etc

Happens bc CANNOT rotate around C=C or will break C=C bond(and overlap)

Same struct formula BUT arranged diff in space

Only in molecs where TWO DIFF GRPS attached to EACH C of C=C


Cahn-Ingold-Prelog (CIG) Priority Rules

PRIORITY:

Higher the ATOMIC (proton) NUMBER of atoms attached to C=C , higher the priority

Highest priority (values) opposite = Entgegan (like trans)

Highest priority (values) together = Zusammen “zame zide” (like cis)