1. Introduction to Dental Materials Flashcards Preview

Dental Materials > 1. Introduction to Dental Materials > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1. Introduction to Dental Materials Deck (36)
Loading flashcards...
1

St. Apollonia

St Apollonia with a tooth grasping forceps in hand

A source of comfort to ____ sufferers

tooth ache

2

Historical Perspectives

1728 ____ – Father of Dentistry
Published report on dental restorations

1756 ____
Wax impressions and POP casts

1792 ____
Construction of porcelain teeth

1915 Discovery! ____ reduced caries rates in Colorado

1935 - Polymerized ____ resin

1919 - US NBS/NIST - ____
- Specifications for amalgam

1928 - ____

Fauchard
Pfaff
de Chamant
Fluoride
Acrylic
Wilmer Souder
ADA Standards

3

Relevant Standards Organizations
• ____
- Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
- American Dental Association (ADA)

• ____
- Int. Dental Federation (FDI)
- Int. Standards Organization (ISO)


Control which materials are sold and which materials are released to consumers

Each organization has their own ____ that products must meet

National
International
standard

4

Federal Regulations

1976 Medical Devices Amendment
- FDA regulation of medical devices
- Class I devices - ____ risk
--- General controls - good manufacturing practices

- Class II devices -
--- FDA Performance standards

- Class III devices
---Approval for safety and efficacy
---- Premarket Approvals - Dental Implants

Class I > ____
Class II > dental ____
Class II > most ____ > implants; evidence of meeting certification standards, and that they are safe

low
burs
composites
invasive

5

Scope of Subject

General classification of dental materials

Metals

Gold ____, Base metal ____, dental ____, direct filling gold, stainless steel wrought ____

Classify dental materials into ____ major groups

alloys
alloys
amalgam
alloys

three

6

Maryland Bridge

A type of ____ material > replacing a missing tooth, cemented to the adjacent teeth

metallic

7

Polymer Materials

____
Composite ____
____ base impression materials
____ impression materials
____


Composite resin (combination of a polymer ____ + inorganic filler)

Acrylic is used for making ____ (PMMA)

polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)
resin
rubber
hydrocolloid
waxes

Bis-GMA
dentures

8

Metals/Polymers

Maxillofacial Prosthodontists > ____ body parts attached via implants

silicone

9

Waxes

Wax is made from a mixture of ____ resins

Used as an ____ step for restorations

polymeric
intermediate

10

Ceramic Materials

- ____ veneers and crowns
- ____ materials
-- ____ products
- Dental ____

porcelain
investment
gypsum
cements

11

Ceramic Veneers

____ veneer for correcting discolored canine

Ceramic

12

Ceramics and Color

____ Fused-to -____ restorations tinted to give appearance of aging

porcelain
metal

13

Effects of Oral Environment

Physical Considerations

____
____ changes
____ changes

biting forces/stresses
temperature
pH

14

Stresses on Restorations

Stresses in ____ of dental restorations

selected regions

15

Effects of Oral Environment

Biological Considerations

- ____
- ____ effects on dental pulp
- ____
- ____


Microleakage > leakage of fluids and oral bacteria through a filling

Thermal effect > using a ____ restoration > high thermal conductivity > can potentially kill the pulp

Galvanism > saliva and tissue fluids are ____; there can be electrical currents generated in the mouth (esp common between two metals and the saliva)

microleakage
thermal
galvanism
toxicity

metallic
conductive

16

Biological Consequences

____ along tooth/restoration interface

____ products from amalgam reduce microleakage

Patient may experience pain initially, but eventually the sensitivity wanes because the ____ corrodes and seals the margin; advise to take a tylenol

microleakage
corrosion
amalgam

17

Other Properties

Electrical - Galvanic cell formation

- Opposing metallic restorations
- Saliva as ____
- Current Flow

Assume one filling is gold and the other is amalgam, different ____, whenever they come into contact they generate a current

Avoid placing two ____ metals in contact with each other; not always homogenous, some patients experience ____

electrolyte
conductivities
different
no effect

18

Structure of Matter

Primary (chemical) bonds
a. ____
b. covalent
c. ____
d. combination of ionic
and covalent bond

ionic
metallic

19

Ionic Bonds

- Electron ____
- Electrons are ____ for charge neutrality
- ____ Materials

transfer
fixed
ceramic

20

Covalent Bonds

- Electron ____
- ____ bond orientation
- ____ and ____

sharing
precise
polymers
ceramics

21

Metallic Bonds

- Electron ____
- Electron ____ around ____ charged ions

sharing
gas
positively

22

Structure of Matter

Secondary (Physical) bonds

- ____ forces eg. Hydrogen bonding
- ____

polar
van der waals

23

Secondary Interatomic Bonds

Hydrogen Bonding
____ dipoles exemplified by ____ molecules

permanent
water

24

Secondary Interatomic Bonds

van der Waals forces

____ dipoles of ____ gas molecules
____ electron field

Typically they are ____

instantaneous
inert
fluctuating
symmetrical

25

Crystal Structure

- Regular arrangement of atoms in space for ____ internal energy
--- every atom is situated ____ to every other atom
--- ____

____ Possible lattice forms

Ordered arrangement (space lattices)

minimal
similarly
space lattice

14

26

Crystal Structures

A. Simple Cubic

B. Body Centered Cubic

C. Face Centered Cubic


____ > atoms at corners and one atom located at the center of the cube

____ > in addition to corners, there are also atoms located on the faces of the cube

body centered
face centered

27

Crystal Structures

Body centered cubic (BCC) eg. ____

Face centered cubic (FCC) eg. ____
Hexagonal close packed (HCP) eg. ____


Important in the formation of alloys (mixing two metals); same ____ > more likely to mix (into an alloy)

Fe
Au, Ag, Pd
Ti

crystal structure

28

14 Bravais Lattices

Each point has
____
surroundings in
three dimensions

identical

29

Non Crystalline Structure

____ materials
Random arrangement of atoms (____ & some ____)

____ are an example of a crystalline structure (ordered)

amorphous
polymers
ceramics

metals

30

Noncrystalline and Crystalline Network of Atoms (SiO2)

Some materials can exist in a crystalline and non-crystalline >
____

in glass (____ form of silica), it can exist in a relatively
____ structure. OR it can exist in an ____ structure in
materials like quartz (____ form of silica)

silica
amorphous
disordered
ordered
crystalline