1 - Topography + definitions Flashcards Preview

Semester 5 - Neuro > 1 - Topography + definitions > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1 - Topography + definitions Deck (40):
1

Define dysphagia and give some common causes:

Difficulty swallowing

If oropharyngeal:
- Stroke
- MS
- Parkinson's

If oesophageal:
- Achalasia
- Stricture/tumour/foreign body
- GORD

2

Define quadriplegia and give some common causes:

Paralysis of all four limbs
- Spinal cord injury between C1-7 ie RTC, high-impact falls

3

Define paraplegia and give some common causes:

Paralysis of legs and lower body
- Spinal cord injury ie RTC, high-impact falls
- Stroke

4

Define hemiplegia and give some common causes:

Paralysis of one side of the body
- Trauma to one side of brain
- Stroke/TIA
- MS

5

Define ataxia and give some common causes:

Loss of full control of body movements:
- coordination
- balance
- speech

- Stroke
- Alcohol abuse
- Cerebral palsy
- MS

6

Define dyslexia:

Learning difficulty resulting in problems when learning to read or interpreting words, but do not affect general intelligence

7

Define aphasia and give some common causes:

Difficulty understanding/speaking/reading or writing
- Stroke
- Dementia
- Tumour
- Infection

8

Define paresis:

Condition of muscular weakness

9

Define akinesia and give some common causes:

Loss/impaired voluntary movement
- Parkinson's disease
- Antipsychotic ADR
- Hypothyroidism

10

Define apraxia and give some common causes:

Inability to perform particular purposeful actions, even though:
- request is understood
- willing to perform task
- muscles work properly
- task has already been learnt

- Congenital
- Stroke

11

Define dyspraxia:

Developmental disorder affecting coordination and movement

12

Define dysarthria and give some common causes:

Difficult or unclear articulation of speech
- due to weak muscles or loss of control over muscles

- Stroke
- Parkinson's disease
- Huntington's disease
- Brain tumour
- Cerebral palsy
- Head injury

13

Define dysphonia and give some common causes:

Difficulty speaking
- physical disorder of mouth/tongue/throat/vocal cords

- Tumour of vocal cord
- Inflam: smoking, infection
- Neuro: MS, PD, nerve injury
- Systemic disease: acromegaly, amyloidosis, hypothyroidism, sarcoidosis
- Psychogenic/stress/vocal strain

14

Define hypertonia and give some common causes:

Increased muscle tone and reduced ability of muscle to stretch
- Parkinson's disease
- Stroke
- Spinal cord injury

15

Define agnosia and give some common causes:

Inability to process sensory information, ie visual agnosia

- Stroke
- Dementia
In occipital/temporal lobes

16

Define dysdiadochokinesia and give some common causes:

Impaired ability to perform rapid, alternating movements

- MS (adults)
- Cerebellar tumours (children)
- Friedrich's ataxia

17

Define hyporeflexia and give some common causes:

Reflex below normal
- Lower motor neurone damage ie trauma, peripheral neuropathy, motor neurone disease

18

Define areflexia and give some common causes:

Absent reflex
- Late muscular dystrophy
- LMN damage ie trauma, peripheral neuropathy, MND
- Spondylosis

19

Define spasticity and give some common causes:

Increased muscle tone and reflexes
- Stroke
- Cerebral palsy
- MS
- Traumatic brain injury

20

Define bradykinesia and give some common causes:

Slow movement
- Parkinson's disease
- Anti-psychotic ADR

21

Define palsy:

Paralysis and involuntary tremors

22

Define chorea and give some common causes:

Jerky involuntary movements of shoulders/hips/face
- Huntington's disease
- Sydenham's chorea (strep complication)
- Wilson's disease
- Drugs ie Levodopa
- SLE
- Thyrotoxicosis

23

Which lobe is associated with speech recognition and memory?

Temporal lobe

24

Which lobe is associated with vision?

Occipital lobe

25

Which lobe is associated with stimulus perception?

Parietal lobe

26

Which lobe is associated with behaviour?

Frontal lobe

27

Which part of the brain is associated with movement and coordination?

Cerebellum

28

What type of brain matter contains cell bodies?

Grey matter

29

What are the names given to the ridges and grooves of the brain?

Ridges = gyri
Grooves = sulci

30

The cells of the CNS are not capable of regeneration, apart from 2 types:

- Olfactory nerve
- Pituitary stalk axons

31

What types of cells myelinated the CNS?

Oligodendrocytes

32

What type of cells myeline the PNS:

Schwann cells

33

Why does having chronically less sleep increase your risk of Alzheimer's disease?

- Glymphatic system clears waste
- Only works when asleep
- Less sleep = build up of waste

34

Define falx cerebri:

Dura mater fold which separates the 2 hemispheres in medial longitudinal fissure

35

Name the 2 layers of the dura mater:
What areas are they not fused together?

1) Periosteal dura
2) Meningeal dura

Dural venous sinuses

36

Which layer of the meninges is 1 cell thick and acts as a chemical barrier?

Pia mater

37

From which ventricle can CSF get into the subarachnoid space?

Fourth ventricle -> subarachnoid space
via medial and lateral apertures

38

What gives white matter its colour?

Fatty myelin surrounding nerve axons

39

In which lobe is the pre-central gyrus, and what is its function?

Frontal lobe
Primary motor cortex

40

In which lobe is the post-central gyrus, and what is its function?

Parietal lobe
Primary somatosensory cortex
Perceives pain, temperature, pressure, stretch, vibration, proprioception, 2-point discrimination