10/13- Metabolic Bone Disease Flashcards Preview

MS2 Endocrine > 10/13- Metabolic Bone Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in 10/13- Metabolic Bone Disease Deck (35):
1

What are the main types of bone?

- Cortical

- Trabecular (cancellous)

2

What are the different cell types in bone?

- Osteoblast (4-6%)

- Osteoclast (1-2%)

- Osteocyte (90-95%)

  • Possibly old osteoblasts (?)

3

Describe the process of bone turnover (remodeling).

How long does it take?

- Activation

- Reversal: osteoclasts start process of resorption

- Formation: ostebolasts lay down bone matrix

- Mineralization: osteoid mineralized by deposition of Ca and other minerals

Process is typically 4-8 mo duration

4

Describe osteoclast features/characteristics?

- CAII produces bicarb and H

- H-ATPase pump sends H out into bone to break up material

5

Describe osteoblast/osteoclast communication and feedback

RANKL = receptor activator of nuclear factor Kappa-B ligand

- Expressed by osteoblast

- Osteoblast stimulates monocytes to differentiate into osteoclasts

RANK = receptor activator of nuclear factor Kappa

- Expressed by osteoclast

Osteoprotogerin (OPG) can bind RANKL and stop resorption process

- OPG is a decoy receptor that prevents osteoclast activation

- Expressed by osteoblast (?) 

A image thumb
6

T/F: Optimal bone strength occurs within physiologic window of bone turnover?

True

- Weaker if too much or too little turnover

7

What are high bone turnover diseases?

- Osteoporosis

- Paget's disease

8

What is osteoporosis?

A systemic skeletal disease characterized by:

- Low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration

- Compromised bone strength with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture

9

What are common fracture sites of osteoporosis?

- Spine: wedge compression deformity

- Hip: fracture typically at neck of femur

- Wrist: typically distal 1/3 of the radius

- Osteoporotic Fracture Syndrome (Dowager's hump)

  • Multiple compression deformities leading to significant kyphosis

10

Describe the gain, maintenance, and loss of bone throughout life

- Gain of bone until age 20-30

- Slight loss in 30s-40s (but not much)

- Estrogen deficiency in post-menopausal women corresponds to steep decline in bone density

11

Fracture risk most strongly corresponds to ____

Fracture risk most strongly corresponds to bone mass

12

What are risk factors for fracture?

- Measurable

- Lifestyle

- Medical Hx

- Meds

- 2ndary causes

Age (biggest risk)

Measurable

- Low BMD

- High bone turnover

- Low body weight

Lifestyle

- Risk of falls

- Smoking

- Excessive alcohol consumption

Medical History

- Prior fracture

- Family history

Medication use:

- Corticosteroids

Some secondary causes of osteoporosis

Lack of estrogens or testosterone (sex hormones)

- Rapid decline of bone mass in women within 1st 5 yrs following menopause

13

How is osteoporosis diagnosed? Treatment?

Diagnosed by bone density scan

- Fracture risk assessment model (FRAX) determines probability of major osteoporotic fractures

- Only cost effective to treat osteoporosis if high FRAX risk (would go ahead and treat someone who has fragile bones, not just this early decreased bone density)

14

Factors leading to fracture

Low bone density

- Low peak bone mass

- Increased bone loss

  • Aging
  • Menopause
  • Other risk factors

Also:

- Propensity to fall

- Poor bone quality

15

Describe the incidence of osteoporotic fractures by age in men vs. women?

Men: really picks up around age 65

Women: starts picking up around 45 yo

- Get big spike in Colles' fracture at 60 yo

16

T/F: there is increased remodeling after menopause?

True (measure of how bone turnover/osteoclatic activity)

17

What is seen here?

Q image thumb

Increased porosity in micro-architecture of osteoporosis (right pic)

18

Diagnosis and evaluation of Osteoporosis

- Diagnosis obvious if fragility fractures present (e.g. falling from stool)

- BMD (bone mineral density) assessment in high risk patients; DEXA (dual x-ray absorption)

- Lab tests to rule out secondary causes

- Labs usually normal in primary osteoporosis

- Biochemical markers of bone turnover?

19

Describe the diagnostic categories for osteopenia and osteoporosis based upon bone density measurements

- Normal

- Low bone mass (osteopenia)

- Osteoporosis

- Severe (established) osteoporosis

Normal

- BMD within 1 SD of young adult female reference mean

Low bone mass (osteopenia)

- BMD 1-2.5 SDs below reference mean

Osteoporosis

- BMD 2.5+ SDs below reference mean

Severe (established) osteoporosis

- BMD > 2.5 SDs below reference mean in the presence of 1+ fragility fractures

20

What is osteopenia?

Low bone mass (less severe than osteoporosis)

21

What is T score? Z score?

T score

- Compare pt's BMD to young adult of same gender (comparing pt with optimal)

- (Recall 20-30 yo adult has max bone mass; minimum fracture risk)

Z score

- Compare pt's BMD with age and gender matched average person

- Low Z score means losing more bone than your peers

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22

Treatment for osteoporosis?

- Calcium

- Vitamin D

Reduction of non-vertebral fractures with Ca and Vitamin D by almost 50%

23

What are anti-resorptive treatments for osteoporosis?

Bisphosphonates (first line!)*

- Alendronate (oral)

- Risedronate

- Ibandronate (1/mo)

- Zoledronic acid (15 min infusion once/yr)

SERMs (Raloxifene)

- Selective estrogen receptor modulators

- Estrogen agonist effect on the bone (and antagonist effect on the breast!)

- Not as potent as bisphosphonates

HRT: (Estrogen) Hormone Replacement Therapy

- Breast cancer risk; no longer used as treatment option for osteoporosis

Calcitonin

- Not very potent

- Good effect on pain (acute fracture scenario)

Densumab

- Human monoclonal Ab against the RANKL (works like OPG)

24

What is the mechanism of bisphosphonates?

- Blocks GTPase binding; GTPase free from cell membrane

- Prevents ruffled border formation of osteoclast (flattened border)

25

What are concerns with bisphosphonates?

(Rare):

- Osteonecrosis of jaw

- Atypical femoral fractures

26

What are anabolic agents that may be used to treat osteoporosis?

- Teriparatide

27

What is the effect of Teriparatide?

- How best combined with bisphosphonates?

- Uses

- Duration of treatment

- Reduces vertebral and non-vertebral fracture risk

- Can NOT be used with bisphosphonates

- Best data for Teriparatide for vertical issues (poor lumbar spine density or history of lumbar fracture)

- Teriparatide can only be used ~ 2 yrs (once done, THEN start bisphosphonates)

28

Do corticosteroids increase or decrease bone mass?

Corticosteroids (glucocorticoids) decrease bone mass

- Induce osteoporosis

29

Describe glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis

- Rate of bone loss

- Route of administration

- Dosing

- Pathophysiology

- Treatment

- Bone loss rapid during the early months of therapy

- Any route of administration: risk

- Alternate day delivery: does not decrease risk

- Pathophysiology: Multiple mechanisms

- Bisphosphonates for treatment

30

Describe Paget's disease

- Cells involved

- Extent (systemic vs. local)

- Symptoms

- Lab markers

- Osteoclasts are extremely hyperactive

- Localized bone disorder (unlike osteoporosis)

- Overactive osteoclastic bone resorption increase in osteoblastic new bone formation

- Usually asymptomatic

Labs:

- Alkaline phosphatase (bone formation marker) is increased

- Urinary and serum N-telopeptide (markers of bone resorption) are increased

31

What is seen here? 

Q image thumb

Paget's Disease 

A image thumb
32

What is treatment for Paget's disease?

Bisphosphonates

33

What is a disease of low bone turnover?

- Osteopetrosis: osteoclasts do not "eat"

34

Describe osteopetrosis

- Osteoclast/blast function

- Elevated levels of what

- Results

- Loss of osteoclastic bone resorption; normal osteoblastic bone formation

- Osteoclast-derived tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) is elevated

- Generalized symmetric increase in bone mass with thickening of both cortical and trabecular bone

35

What is seen here? 

Q image thumb

Osteopetrosis

- Marble bone disease

- Albers-Schonberg disease