Topic 7 - Foreign Aid, Remittances and Development Flashcards Preview

20ECC119 - Development Economics > Topic 7 - Foreign Aid, Remittances and Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 7 - Foreign Aid, Remittances and Development Deck (37)
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1
Q

What does Foreign Assistance/ Foreign Aid comprise of?

A

Official Development Assistance (ODA)

Private Voluntary Assistance (PVA)

2
Q

What counts as PVA?

A

Grants and contributions from NGOs, charities,
religious groups, private companies, etc.

e.g. Bill and Melinda Gates foundation, Save the
Children, Oxfam, etc.
- Growing rapidly in importance

3
Q

What counts as ODA? (Administration and Use?)

A

By government agencies (1)
For econ development and welfare enhancement (2)
With concessional terms (better than the mkt) (3)

4
Q

Could military aid be considered as foreign aid?

A

Can be classed as such by giver country but not by the OECD

5
Q

Who are the DAC?

A

AKA Development Assistance Committee

A forum to discuss issues surrounding aid, development and poverty reduction in developing countries. It describes itself as being the “venue and voice” of the world’s major donor countries

Essentially discussing things like what are the criteria of receiving aid etc.

6
Q

When is ODA actually considered as ODA

A

If:

  1. Goes toward list of low and middle income countries or institutions like World Bank
  2. Spent by govt or govt agencies
  3. Spent first and foremost to promote econ development and welfare
  4. Grant/Loan at better rate than mkt
7
Q

Who are the donors of ODA?

A

Global North to the Global South

Global South to the Global South

8
Q

What is Bilateral Assistance?

A

One country to another

9
Q

What is MultiLateral Assistance?

A

Agency pooling together to give to one country or many

E.G. IMF, Development Banks

10
Q

Who gives the highest level of aid per GNI?

A

Sweden at 115% GNI

11
Q

Who contributes the most to the ODA as a member of the DAC?

A

US at 25% of total ODA

Countries are free to decide who to give aid to

12
Q

Who are the top 3 recipients of UK aid?

A
  1. Pakistan 417 Mil
  2. Ethiopia 393 Mil
  3. Afghan 368 Mil
13
Q

Who are the top 3 recipients of US aid?

A
  1. Afghan 1183 Mil
  2. Jordan 1126 mil
  3. Ethiopia 847 Mil
14
Q

What are the motives for Aid?

A
  1. Aid for Relief
    - Disasters and humanitarian relief
    - Role of the media, campaigns and appeals -> PROS: Awareness CONS: Fatigue
  2. Aid for development
    - Less media engaging
    - Marshall Plan
    - Infrastructure Building
    PRO
15
Q

What are the motives for Aid?

A
  1. Aid for Advocacy
    Aid for right empowerment. Some argue poverty is offshoot of opression. Gender, Minority rights
    Education and Public Awareness. Shapes behaviours (under what standards tho?)
  2. Aid for Self Interest
    Economic, political, international standing / reputation, global alliances.
    -Resource extraction; Open South-South co-operation; Climate, Cold war etc.
    and environmental protection;
  3. Aid for Private Sector advancement
    - A re-focus of understanding of private sector’s role
16
Q

What are Aid Darling and Aid Orphans?

A

Aid Darlings - Countries that are attractive to donors for whatever reason

Aid Orphans - Countries not very attractive to donors

17
Q

What are the factors influencing where aid goes? (PT 1)

A
  1. Commercial Ties:
    Often to help support certain firms/sectors in the donor country e.g., farmers (food aid),technical advisors (‘experts’) etc.
  2. Democracy
    Countries sharing democracy
  3. Foreign Policy Objectives and Political Alliances:
    i.e Soviet Union and N. Korea
    Former colonies (Portugal, UK, France, etc.– large % to former colonies)
18
Q

What are the factors influencing where aid goes? (PT 2)

A
  1. Income Levels and Poverty (Humanitarian aid):
    Most concessional assistance goes to poorest countries (relatively)
    However a ‘ceiling effect’, after which concessional loans kick in.
  2. Country Size
    ‘drop in the ocean’ vs. ‘drop in a spoon’ ideology
19
Q

What are the 3 distinct views into Aid?

A
  1. ODA ineffective and harmed more
    - Creates dependency, promote corruption and encourage currency overvaluation (Easterly and Moyo view)
  2. ODA could be improved
    - Collier ‘Traps in perpetuating destitution’
    - Banerjee and Duflo ‘Use of RCTs could help in designing more effective aid programmes
  3. MOAAAARRRRR AID
    However, with rethink on the mechanism and methods -Sachs and Stiglitz
20
Q

What is Sachs and Moyo’s view on Aid working?

A

Sachs: Aid to help onto development

Moyo: Aid causes crowding out and this capital only causes corruption
Instead better access to capital mkts needed

21
Q

What are the views of aid on econ growth (NOT WORKING)

A

-Crowding out effect: Undermining incentives for private sector activity
• Capital inflows effect on Macro variables
• Shifts from Savings to Consumption
• Tied aid for input sourcing
• Aid dependency
- Causes mkt failures

22
Q

What are the views of aid on econ growth (WORKING)

A

Private sector growth
• National level infrastructure
- Role of capital and productivity -> Harrod-Domar and Solow

23
Q

What is Aid Effectiveness?

A

Measure of how effective development aid has been in achieving economic
and/or human development (or the development targets)

24
Q

What are the conditions to seeing positive impact of Aid to GDP and development?

A

Has been good in developing human capital (Edu,Health,Knowledge etc.)
Diminishing returns seen tho

  • Characteristics of Recipient country: Policies, Institutions, Policy Environment
  • Type of Aid causing time lag: Aimed at long-term growth (Infrastructure)
    Aid funnelled into Human Capital (V. Long term impact)
  • Donor Practises
    Motivations for donating, influence on donor etc.
25
Q

In adjusting ‘better’ governance what are the policies that should be focued?

A

Realign State Systems - SAP Programmes (Struct Adjustment Programme)

Emphasis on: Open Governance, Public Participation, Democracy and Human Rights

26
Q

What are the views of aid on governance (WORKING)

A
  1. Can improve Capacity Building
    - Education and Training
    - Can positively influence workings of state and non-state institutions
    -Policies, Processes and Procedures
    Can have wide-ranging impacts
27
Q

What are the views of aid on governance (NOT WORKING)

A
  1. Misuse and distortions
  2. Fungibility of Aid
  3. Fiduciary risk
  4. Dependency….(what happens when the Aid stops)
  5. State legitimacy conflicts – political considerations
  6. Loss of independence and privacy (inverse sovereignty effect)
  7. Volatility of Aid
  8. Financial management and Forward planning
  9. Donor co-ordination
  10. Absorptive capacity
  11. Regulation standards
  12. Hard to quantify (Typically, qualitative)
28
Q

What are the views of aid on poverty (WORKING)

A

-> Most publicised (impactful)
• Live Aid; Make Poverty History; USA for Africa; MDGs; SDGs; etc.
->Provision of what the poor lack (recall the ‘Poverty Trap’ idea and ‘The Big Push’ idea)
->Human well-being/welfare

29
Q

What are the views of aid on poverty (NOT WORKING)

A
  • > Free markets and equal access (not Aid)
  • > Market distortions that hurt the poor
  • > Poor are voiceless (often unaware of Aid due them)
  • > Fiduciary Risk & implications for Inequality

• China’s example =Aid is not the answer.

30
Q

What are some other issues behind Aid?

A
  1. Role of non-state agencies:
    When going thru govt agencies, whole host of benefits and problems
    - Maybe NGO’s better?
  2. Public Accountability:
    Accounting for aid monies to taxpayers/donors
31
Q

In shifting from aid effective to effective development (co-operation) what were the 4 important principles to facilitate this?(Per the 2011 Busan Principle)

A
  1. Ownership of develop priorities by developing nations: Basically the developing nation should choose how it wants to develop
  2. Focus on results: Aid should be driven on results
  3. Partnerships for development: Aid should be based on partnership and not a principal-agent model where one controls the other
  4. Shared Responsibility:
    Co-op for development should be accountable to all citizens not just aid agencies and their donors
32
Q

What are Remittances?

A

Transfer payments

Think immigrants giving money back home

33
Q

What affects the level of remittances given back home?

A
  1. Population -> Larger the pop, the more the remittance e.g. 76bn given in India via remittance
  2. Sector -> If migrants find themselves in one sector then downturns in sector impact payments back home
34
Q

Why are remittances growing in importance?

A

More money provided to developing nations via remmitance than ODA.

  • Consistent growth through booms and busts
35
Q

What has caused the growth in remittances?

A
  1. Improved (money transfer) technology
  2. Regulation of other less formal channels: Money laundering, funding terrorism, illegal activities
  3. Emigration patterns – increased migration of skilled labour (BRAIN DRAIN)
  4. Migrants seeing home country as a good investment destination.
36
Q

What are some pros and cons to remittances for the recipient nations?

A

CONS:

  1. Brain drain effects
  2. Loss of societal investment in individual;
  3. Governments shirking their responsibilities
  4. Consumption patterns; Inflation; Dependency;

PROS:

  1. Human capital development
  2. Research and Development carried out by migrants for developing country policies;
  3. Household spending:
  4. Infrastructure development (e.g. houses),
  5. Funding education/health care, consumption,
  6. Household income diversification
  7. Escape from poverty trap.
  8. Migrants contribution to development projects.
37
Q

To tax remittances or not? (PROS AND CON)

A

Oklahoma currently does so at 5% for first $500 and 1% thereafter

CONS:

  • Double taxing migrants
  • Incentive to use unregulated, informal channels (security risk, reduce tax revenues)
  • Expatriates may opt for countries with lower taxes
  • In past such taxes not work in Gabon (2008), these taxes insignificant