Topic 3b - Gender Inequality Flashcards Preview

20ECC119 - Development Economics > Topic 3b - Gender Inequality > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 3b - Gender Inequality Deck (18)
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1
Q

What do we see as the key difference between men and women in developing nations?

A

Women less access to medical services, water, sanitation,education etc.

Men often heads of household

  • In higher paying jobs that don’t accept women
  • Control of household incomes
2
Q

What was Jeremy Corbyn speech on gender inequality?

A

Last year Britain was ranked 18th in the world for its gender pay gap… We can and must do far
better.”

3
Q

What is the Intrinsic Importance of female equality?

A

Human flourishing (Sen)

4
Q

What is the Instrumental Importance in Female Equality?

A
  1. Increased efficiency (e.g. by reducing barriers to education) increases productivity
  2. Positive externalities for children
  3. Evidence of less corruption in public life, more welfare oriented policies.
5
Q

What are some of the factors that allow for gender inequality?

A
  1. In general, the poorer the country, the greater the gender gap
  2. Culture and perceptions
  3. Unequal access to credit and assets and opportunities
  4. Institutional discrimination in private and public sectors (Klugman et al., 2014
6
Q

What are some key stats toward gender inequality?

A
  1. Girls account for the majority of children not attending school
  2. Almost 2/3 of women in the developing world work in the informal sector or as unpaid workers in the home.
  3. women are still out numbered four-to-one in many
    legislatures around the world.
7
Q

What is the Progress toward SDG 5 (the one about gender equality)?

A
  1. 2/3 of countries in the developing regions have achieved gender parity in primary education
    - > S. Asia 74 girls enrolled per 100 in 1990, now equal proportions
  2. Women represented 39% of world employment, only 27% of managerial positions in the world were occupied by women in 2018 up from 26% in 2015
8
Q

How is the gender development index calculated?

A

HDI fem / HDI male

9
Q

What are the key areas of focus in the gender equality?

A
  1. Missing girls and women
    Globally 4 mil missing, 40% never born (pref for boys), 20% literally missing, 40% maternal mortality (15-19)
  2. Earnings gap and asset ownership
  3. Less representation in politics
10
Q

What are some studies looking into these ‘missing’ women?

A
  • > Miguel (2004) finds that in some regions, when the harvest is bad, the murder of “witches” (almost always old women) is twice as likely to occur as in normal years
  • > Singer (2000), South Africa, ever since old-age pension programs (previously only for
    whites) were extended to also to non-whites, “witch” killings in rural Northern Province of South-Africa have dropped dramatically.
11
Q

What are some issues with looking into intra-household (HH) income as a measure of gender inequality?

A

Cannot predict individual welfare/development
HH discrimination) distribution of income often unequal

o Strong biases exist against women/daughters
o Nutrition, Education, Health care, Inheritance.

12
Q

Why is closing the education gender gap important?

A

->The social rate of return on women’s education is higher than that of men in developing countries
• Education for women increases productivity, lowers fertility
• Educated mothers have a multiplier impact on future generations
• Education can break the vicious cycle of poverty and inadequate schooling for women

13
Q

Why do Empirical studies find higher female infant mortality?

A
  1. Sons/men more perceived to have greater potential to contribute to the family.
  2. Women marry (and contribute) into another family (often outside the village)
14
Q

Why do Empirical studies find less discrimination against women and kids when women earn more?

A

Women’s incomes often go towards children’s nutritional intake, education and healthcare

15
Q

How did Sen come to the view of high female mortality in Asia?

A

Compared the ratios of women to men in Europe (1.06) and North America (1.05) with those in South Asia (0.93), West Asia (0.94) and China (0.94)

16
Q

What are some possible explanations into the missing women issue in Asia?

A

Different preferences (of men and women) & low bargaining power of women in HH due to:

a. Limited job opportunities in the labour market &
b. Low value placed on home production/duties
c. Poor property rights

Desai 1994, found advert for sex selection clinic in Mumbai better to pay Rs 500 than Rs 50K later

  • One child policy
17
Q

What are some strategies into improving the gender disparity? (PT 1)

A
  1. Include women in planning, budgeting, and policy-making processes in a meaningful way;
  2. Promote women’s and girls’ economic rights and opportunities;
  3. Address the gender dimensions of HIV and AIDS;
  4. Strengthen the collection and analysis of gender-disaggregated data
  5. Ensure that essential public services like health and education, benefit women, men, girls
    and boys equitably.
18
Q

What are some strategies into improving the gender disparity? (PT 2)

A
  1. Targeted empowerment
  2. Education as a legal requirement
  3. Targeted subsidies and incentives