Flashcards in 1.01 - Basic Tissue Types Deck (24):
What is the H&E stain and what structures does it stain?
Haemotoxylin and Eosin Stain
Haemotoxylin stains nuclei blue
Eosin stains cytoplasm, collagen pink
What are the four basic types of tissue?
What is epithelium?
A group of tissues that cover or line all body cavities, surfaces and tubes and functions as an interface between different biological compartments
What are the functions of the epithelium?
Barrier/Protection/Containment - skin
Secretion - produces substances - breast
Absorption - uptake of substances - small intestine
Excretion - Elimination - kidneys
Diffusion - movement of molecules - lungs
Contractility - have ability to shorten - bladder
Sensation - to perceive, feel - tongue
What are the two broad classifications for epithelia?
Simple - one layer thick
Stratified - two or more layers thick
What terms are used to describe the cellular morphology of epithelium?
Squamous - flattened, scale like
Columnar - column shaped (taller than they are wide)
Cuboidal - cube shaped
What are some special features of epithelial cells?
What subtypes of simple epithelium are there?
What subtypes of stratified epithelium are there?
What are epithelial tissues made up of?
Epithelial cells and the underlying basement membrane
Describe the basement membrane
Sheet like arrangement of extracellular matrix proteins (such as collagen) that forms an interface between supporting tissues and epithelial cells. Forms an impenetrable barrier to downward growth of cells but allows flow of nutrients and metabolites to and from the epithelium.
What are some generic features of epithelia
Closely attached cells
Little extracellular matrix
Cell to cell attachments are strong
Usually do not move
What are the type of intercellular junctions?
Occluding Junctions - Tight junctions (zonula occludens)
Adhering Junctions - Desmosome (macula adherens)
- Belt desmosome (zonula adherens)
Communicating junctions - Gap junctions
Describe Tight Junctions
Usually found closest to the free surface of the epithelial cell and prevent materials from intestinal lumen leaking in to the intercellular spaces of the epithelium.
Consists of two closely opposed cytoplasmic membranes without an intervening gap.
Dense regions of attachment between epithelial cells. Contribute to the strong bonds between the cells in the skin.
Consists of two opposing dense plaques on the cytoplasmic membranes
Describe Gap Junctions
A very small continuity between cytoplasm of adjacent cells.
Sites of cell to cell communication
Found in hepatocytes
A group of similar cells specialised in a particular way for the performance of a common function
What is connective tissue composed of?
Cells & Extracellular Matrix
Cells: Fibroblasts/Fibrocytes, Adipocytes, Immune Cells
Extracellular Matrix: Fibres (collagen, elastin), ground substance, basement membrane
What are the two broad categories for connective tissue?
Connective Tissue Proper (ordinary): dense regular, dense irregular, loose (areolar)
Special: vascular connective tissues, adipose tissue, cartilage, bone
What are the functions and features of connective tissue?
Binds together, protects and supports tissues
Largely structural but also defence
What are the three types of muscle cells?
Describe skeletal muscle
Cross striated due to the arrangement of contractile proteins
Long multinucleated cells
Movement of the skeleton
Describe smooth muscle
No cross striations
Movement of visceral structures such as blood vessels