1.01 - Basic Tissue Types Flashcards Preview

Histology > 1.01 - Basic Tissue Types > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1.01 - Basic Tissue Types Deck (24):
1

What is the H&E stain and what structures does it stain?

Haemotoxylin and Eosin Stain
Haemotoxylin stains nuclei blue
Eosin stains cytoplasm, collagen pink

2

What are the four basic types of tissue?

Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Nervous

3

What is epithelium?

A group of tissues that cover or line all body cavities, surfaces and tubes and functions as an interface between different biological compartments

4

What are the functions of the epithelium?

Barrier/Protection/Containment - skin
Secretion - produces substances - breast
Absorption - uptake of substances - small intestine
Excretion - Elimination - kidneys
Diffusion - movement of molecules - lungs
Contractility - have ability to shorten - bladder
Sensation - to perceive, feel - tongue

5

What are the two broad classifications for epithelia?

Simple - one layer thick
Stratified - two or more layers thick

6

What terms are used to describe the cellular morphology of epithelium?

Squamous - flattened, scale like
Columnar - column shaped (taller than they are wide)
Cuboidal - cube shaped

7

What are some special features of epithelial cells?

Cilia
Goblet Cells
Secretory Granules
Microvilli
Cell-cell junctions

8

What subtypes of simple epithelium are there?

Squamous
Cuboidal
Columnar
Pseudostratified

9

What subtypes of stratified epithelium are there?

Squamous
Cuboidal
Columnar
Transitional

10

What are epithelial tissues made up of?

Epithelial cells and the underlying basement membrane

11

Describe the basement membrane

Sheet like arrangement of extracellular matrix proteins (such as collagen) that forms an interface between supporting tissues and epithelial cells. Forms an impenetrable barrier to downward growth of cells but allows flow of nutrients and metabolites to and from the epithelium.

12

What are some generic features of epithelia

Closely attached cells
Little extracellular matrix
Cell to cell attachments are strong
Usually do not move

13

What are the type of intercellular junctions?

Occluding Junctions - Tight junctions (zonula occludens)
Adhering Junctions - Desmosome (macula adherens)
- Belt desmosome (zonula adherens)
Communicating junctions - Gap junctions

14

Describe Tight Junctions

Zonula Occludens
Usually found closest to the free surface of the epithelial cell and prevent materials from intestinal lumen leaking in to the intercellular spaces of the epithelium.
Consists of two closely opposed cytoplasmic membranes without an intervening gap.

15

Describe Desmosomes

Macula Adherens
Dense regions of attachment between epithelial cells. Contribute to the strong bonds between the cells in the skin.
Consists of two opposing dense plaques on the cytoplasmic membranes

16

Describe Gap Junctions

A very small continuity between cytoplasm of adjacent cells.
Sites of cell to cell communication
Found in hepatocytes

17

Define: Tissue

A group of similar cells specialised in a particular way for the performance of a common function

18

What is connective tissue composed of?

Cells & Extracellular Matrix
Cells: Fibroblasts/Fibrocytes, Adipocytes, Immune Cells
Extracellular Matrix: Fibres (collagen, elastin), ground substance, basement membrane

19

What are the two broad categories for connective tissue?

Connective Tissue Proper (ordinary): dense regular, dense irregular, loose (areolar)
Special: vascular connective tissues, adipose tissue, cartilage, bone

20

What are the functions and features of connective tissue?

Binds together, protects and supports tissues
Largely structural but also defence

21

What are the three types of muscle cells?

Skeletal
Smooth
Cardiac

22

Describe skeletal muscle

Cross striated due to the arrangement of contractile proteins
Long multinucleated cells
Voluntary
Movement of the skeleton

23

Describe smooth muscle

No cross striations
Single nucleus
Involuntary
Movement of visceral structures such as blood vessels

24

Describe cardiac muscle

Striated
Long cylindrical cells
One or two nuclei
Involuntary
Responsible for the continuous, rhythmic contractility of the heart