10.1 Fundamentals Of Organic Chemistry Flashcards Preview

Chemistry Chapter 10 - Organic Chemistry > 10.1 Fundamentals Of Organic Chemistry > Flashcards

Flashcards in 10.1 Fundamentals Of Organic Chemistry Deck (33):
1

What is a homologous series?

A series of compounds with the same functional group, in which each members differs from the next by a common structural unit usually CH2

2

What is a functional group?

An atom of group of atoms in a molecules that give it its characteristic chemical properties - the reactive part of a molecule.

3

What is a hydrocarbon?

A compound containing carbon and hydrogen only.

4

Why do members of a homologous series have similar chemical properties?

They have the same functional group.

5

Why is there gradation of physical properties such as boiling point in a homologous series?

The boiling point increases as the carbon chain gets longer due to an increase in the strength of London forces between molecules as the relative molecular mass of the compound increases.

6

What is the functional group and functional group name for alkanes and the general formula?

Alkyl
CnH2n+2

7

What is the functional group and functional group name for alkenes and the general formula?

C=C
Alkenyl
CnH2n

8

What is the functional group and functional group name for alkynes and the general formula?

C (triple bond) C
Alkynyl
CnH2n-2

9

What is the functional group and functional group name for alcohols and the general formula?

-OH
Hydroxyl
CnH2n+1OH

10

What is the functional group and functional group name for ethers and the general formula?

C-O-C
Ether
CnH2n+2O

11

What is the functional group and functional group name for aldehydes and the general formula?

|
C= O
|
H

Carbonyl
CnH2nO

12

What is the functional group and functional group name for ketones and the general formula?

C
|
C = O
|
C

Carbonyl
CnH2nO

13

What is the functional group and functional group name for carboxylic acids and the general formula?

|
C = O
|
OH

Carboxyl
CnH2n+1COOH

14

What is the functional group and functional group name for halogenoalkanes?

-X
X = Cl, Br, I
Halo

15

What is the functional group and functional group name for amines?

-NH2
-NHR
-NR2
Amine

16

What is the functional group and functional group name for esters?

C Ester
|
O
|
C = O
|

17

What is the functional group and functional group name for nitriles?

-C(triple bond)N
Nitrile

18

What is the functional group and functional group?

|
C = O
|
NH2
Carboxamide

19

What is an unsaturated compound?

An unsaturated compound contains multiple bonds between carbon atom (C=C)

20

What is a saturated compound?

a saturated compound contains only single bonds between carbon atoms (C-C)

21

What are the rules for naming compounds?

Find the longest continuous carbon chain the molecule
Number the carbons so that the functional group in the molecule has the lowest possible number ie start numbering from the end closest to the functional group.
Number the positions of ally groups (branches) using the combination that includes the lowest individual numbers but bearing in mind the rule that other functional groups take priority over alkyl groups.
Arrange the names of the groups in alphabetical order.
When more than one group of a particular type is present use the prefixes die (2) tribute (3) tetra (4).
Use a common between numbers and a dash between numbers and letters.

22

What are structural isomers?

Two or more compounds which have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas - a different arrangement of atoms.

23

What is a primary alcohol?

One carbon attached to the OH group.

24

What is a secondary alcohol?

Two carbons attached to the OH group.

25

What is a tertiary carbon?

Three carbons attached to the OH group.

26

What is a primary amine?

Where one alkyl group is attached to the nitrogen.

27

What is a secondary amine?

Where two alkyl groups are attached to the nitrogen.

28

What is a tertiary amine?

Where three alkyl groups are attached to the nitrogen.

29

What is benzene?

Benzene has the molecular formula C6H6 and consists of a planar hexagonal ring of carbon atoms.

30

How can benzene's structure be drawn?

With alternating double and single bonds between carbon atoms or with a delocalised ring of six electrons.

31

What is the physical evidence for benzene having a delocalised structure rather than the structure with alternating double and single bonds?

All the C-C bonds in benzene are the same length but if the structure had double and single bonds there would be short C=C and longer C-c bonds between carbons atoms.
Only three isomers exist for C6H4CL2 but if there were three double bonds in the ring, four isomer would be predicted, since the Cl2 atoms could be either side of a C-c or C=C.

32

What is the chemical evidence for benzene having a delocalised structure rather than the structure with alternating double and single bonds?

When cyclohexane (6 memebered ring with 1 C=C) reacts with hydrogen 120kJmol-1 are given out but when benzene eats with hydrogen considerably less than three times as much energy is given out.
Compounds with C=C undergo addition reactions but benzene undergoes substitute reactions.

33

How is benzene described and what happen when it is present in a compound?

Benzene is described as an aromatic unsaturated hydrocarbon. When a benzene ring is present in a compound it is called a phenyl group and compounds containing this are called aromatic compounds.